Senin, 14 Maret 2011

Microprocessor Characteristics of Digital Technology

Technological developments also affect the communication process. Some of them even cause the appearance of "public information" (information society). They are the ones that are controlled by information. One form is by accessing the data from the computer. Even today, it seems people are increasingly dependent on computers, which is one form of communication support technologies.

The development of communication technology is certainly an impact on the community structure. The longer the wake of a dependency between society, technology, and information. One is with the emergence of social classes. If social class in ancient times was more influenced by economic factors, education, and political, social classes are now part influenced by one's ability to use technology. Someone who is able to master the technology will outperform others who do not quite have that ability.

In this regard, the development of technology also raises fears for some people. People are not only required to be able to compete with one another, but also compete with the technology itself. For some people, technological developments raises the fear that they will be increasingly difficult to get jobs. This kind of thinking was born as more and more things that can be done by computers and related systems.

In addition, technological developments also raised questions that are ethical. Like for example the extent to which someone is allowed to access the data? This is certainly related to the privacy of others. Currently we can with so easy obtain information, eg from the internet. we are allowed to access this information?

Technological development does have 2 sides. On the one hand we are very simplified in many respects, but on the other hand the development of technology also began to be misused.

Modern communication systems have some technical elements as basic elements. Modern technology using the codes that enable the delivery of information from one device to another device.

Basic Concepts

Transducer, which is a tool that serves to convert one form of energy into another form of energy. Transducer natural change information (information in the original form, such as sound), into the form of electrical signals making it possible to be processed, stored, or transmitted.

Signal. Two things are most important when we discuss the signal is amplitude and frequency. Amplitude is the height of waves, such as volume. While the frequency is the number of waves passing a point per one second.

Modulation, Bandwidth, and Noise. Modulation communication system is very familiar to us. For example, AM or FM radio station. Modulation can be defined as a receiver.

After the signal is received by the recipient, the information in its original form can be processed. There is a relation between signal frequency and capability carrier. If the frequencies that carry large, the carrier capabilities must also be sufficient to accommodate it.

During this exchange process, often resulting in noise or disturbance. If the noise is big enough, then the exchange of information will be increasingly hampered. This noise can be of the communications equipment itself, or from sources outside the means of communication.

Electromagnetic wave is a collection of all frequencies of electromagnetic radiation, ranging from radio waves to X-rays up to the cosmic waves. Electromagnetic energy is then used to form the spectrum of our communication tools. For example, radio stations use to broadcast. That's why its use is restricted by certain rules.

The word comes from the word Digital, in Greek means fingers. If we count the fingers of adults, then the amount of ten (10). The value of ten is made up of 2 radix, ie 1 and 0, therefore the depiction of Digital is a state number consisting of digits 0 and 1 or off and on (binary). All computer systems use a digital system as its data base. Can also called Bit (Binary Digit).

Sophisticated equipment, like computers, the processor has a complicated series of binary calculations. In a picture that is easy-easy, a binary process like a light switch, which has 2 state, the Off (0) and On (1). For example there are 20 lights and switches, if the switch is turned on in position A, for example, then he will form flowers, and if ignited in a position B, it will form a heart. That's roughly the digital binary.

Is the result of technology that converts the signal into a combination of sequence numbers 0 and 1 (also called binary) to process the information easily, quickly and accurately. The signal is called a bit.

The digital signal has a unique set of privileges that can not be found on analog technology, namely:

1. Able to transmit information with the speed of light that can make the information can be sent at high speed.

2. Use of repetitive to information does not affect the quality and quantity of the information itself,

3. Information can be easily processed and modified into various shapes,

4. Can process information in very large and sending it interactively.

examples of application:

1. digital computer

2. digital clock

3. digital monitor

4. digital modem

Computer engineering (also called computer systems engineering) is a specialized discipline that combines electrical engineering and computer science. A computer technician is a technician weak electrical currents that focus more on digital circuit system, data communication system at radio frequencies, and electronics as part of the overall computer. From eyeglasses computer science, a computer technician is a software architect who has focused on the interaction between software and hardware components of the program and their supporters. Academically, emphasis on the type of computer engineering courses:

-Electronics and digital systems
-Microprocessor and assembler language
-Organization computer or computer architecture
Computer network and Internet-
-Parallel computers, etc.

* Electronics is the study of weak current electrical appliance which is operated by way of controlling the flow of electrons or electrically charged particles in a device such as computers, electronic equipment, thermocouples, semiconductors, and so forth. Science of learning tools such as this is a branch of physics, while the form of design and manufacture of electronic circuits is part of electrical engineering, computer engineering, and science / electronics and instrumentation engineering.
The tools that use the basic electronics work is usually referred to as electronic equipment (electronic devices). Examples of equipment / electronic devices: Cathode Ray Tube (Cathode Ray Tube, CRT), radios, TVs, cassette recorders, video cassette recorder (VCR), recording VCD, DVD recorders, video cameras, digital cameras, desk-top personal computers, Laptop computers, PDAs (pocket computers), robots, smart cards, etc..

* Microposesor: A microprocessor (often written: μP or UP) is a central processing unit (CPU), electronic computer made of miniature transistors and other circuitry on a semiconductor integrated circuit.
Before the development of microprocessors, CPUs electronic integrated circuit made of separate TTL; earlier, individual transistors; before that, from vacuum tubes. Even the existing design for simple machines on the basis of mechanical parts such as gear, shaft, lever, Tinkertoy, etc..
The evolution of microprocessors has been known to follow Moore's Law which is the increase in performance from year to year. This theory was formulated that the counting power will double every 18 months, a process that really happened since the early 1970s; a surprise to people who are related. From the beginning as a driver in the calculator, the development of power headed to the dominance of the microprocessor in the various types of computers, each system from the largest mainframes to the smallest grasp computers now uses a microprocessor as its center.

Microprocessor Characteristics

Here are the important characteristics of the microprocessor:
-Size of the internal data bus (internal data bus size): The number of channels contained in the microprocessor which states the number of bits that can be transferred between components on the microprocessor.
-The size of the external data bus (external data bus size): The number of channels used for data transfer between components between the microprocessor and the components outside the microprocessor.
-The size of the memory address (memory address size): The number of memory addresses that can eye by the microprocessor directly.
Clock-speed (clock speed): Rate or speed of the microprocessor clock to guide the work.
-Special Features (special features): Special features in support of specific applications such as floating point processing facilities, multimedia and so forth.

* Assembler is a computer program for translating assembly language - essentially, a menmonic representation of machine language - a code object. A cross assembler (see cross compiler) produces code for one type of processor, but can be run on other processors.
Besides translating the op code mnemonic assembly instruction, assembler also provides the ability to use symbolic names for memory locations (to avoid complicated calculations and manual address updates when a program changed slightly), and macro facilities to perform the replacement Textual - usually used to replace a sequence of instructions short to run line and not in a subroutine.
Assembler much easier to write than compilers for high-level languages, and has been available since the 1950s. Modern Assembler, especially for RISC based architectures, such as the MIPS architecture, Sun SPARC, and HP PA-RISC, optimize instruction scheduling to use the CPU pipeline efficiently.

* In the field of computer engineering, computer architecture is the concept of planning and structure of the basic operation of a computer system. This computer architecture is the blueprint plans and functional description of requirements designed piece of hardware (processing speed and system interconnection). In this case, the implementation plan of each part will be focused primarily, on how the CPU will work, and on how to access data and addresses to and from cache memory, RAM, ROM, hard disk, etc.). Some examples of computer architecture is the von Neumann architecture, CISC, RISC, Blue Gene, etc..
Computer architecture can also be defined and categorized as a science and art as well as on how to interconnect the hardware components in order to create a computer that meets functional requirements, performance and cost targets.
This computer architectures contain at least 3 sub-categories:
-Set instruction (ISA)
Micro-architecture of the ISA, and
-The system design of all components in the computer hardware.

* Parallel computing is a computing technique together with the use of multiple independent computers simultaneously. This is generally required when the required capacity is very large, either because they have to process large amounts of data (in the financial industry, bio informatics, etc.) or because it demands a lot of computational process. The second case were common in numerical calculations to solve mathematical equations in physics (computational physics), chemistry (computational chemistry), etc..

Digital Technology

Technological development has given birth to digital technology. So, what's the difference between analog signals with digital signals? Analog signals arise when there are changes from the physical or wave form of light waves into electrical signals. While the digital signal using a sequence of numbers to represent information. Unlike analog signals, digital signals are not constant.

Digital Communication System has advantages, among others, can be processed by computer. The information stored in it can be copied without any damage. In addition, many signals can be relayed in one line. And unlike analog signals that change when in-relays, digital signal unchanged. Pulse on the digital signal will regenerate, so the quality is not damaged. While there are many disadvantages such as analog forms of information, so we need tools to convert it to digital.

Discusses the basic digital computer system of a computer system, is ideal for a basic understanding of a system microprocessor or micro controller, which is described in each part and its functions such as RAM, serial interface, parallel control systems, digital to analog converter or vice versa.

Computer networks include discussion of the concept of network, network architecture, along with layers of the OSI model, network topologies, transmission media, data transmission and modems. not discussed in this chapter about how cripting utp cable, optical or flashing analysis calculation, and the introduction of IP.

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