Senin, 08 Juli 2013

power plants

NPP basically operates on the same principle as conventional power plants, but the differences in the way the generation of heat to generate steam. In the conventional power plants, the heat generated from the combustion of fossil (oil, coal, gas), while the heat generated from nuclear fission reactions of atomic nuclei fuel (Uranium) in a nuclear reactor. The resulting heat is used to generate steam in the steam generators and then, just as in a conventional power plant, the steam is used to drive a turbine and generator to produce electricity. In electricity generation, nuclear power does not release fumes or dust containing heavy metals or CO2, SO2, NOx into the environment.

 The figure below shows the operation principle of the scheme NPP press type reactor (PWR).

As mentioned above, the heat to generate steam in a nuclear core obtained from the division process. The figure below shows the core division process. When a neutron particle successful entry into the nucleus of uranium fuel, the uranium core becomes unstable and consequently have cleavage. The results of this division are two other pieces of material atoms, 2 to 3 pieces of new neutrons and energy. Total mass of all the materials that formed after the fission of uranium nuclei is smaller than before the division. The difference is that the mass turned into energy. Newly formed neutron core after division can grind other uranium nuclei and so generate other material atoms, 2-3 pieces of new neutrons and energy. And so on, forming a chain reaction. One gram of Uranium will be able to generate power equal to 1 million watts for 1 day. If a home uses energy of 1000 kilowatt-hours in a day, the energy produced 1 gram of uranium can be used for about 24 days.

In order for a chain reaction does not develop into uncontrollable, like the atom bomb, the control material is used, among others, made out of cadmium, to create a chain reaction running stable and controllable. New neutron fission results have a very high speed, therefore in order to more easily fit into the nucleus of neutrons must be slowed. Materials often used as pelambat or moderator is plain water that has minerals removed. Can also use heavy water, or graphite as a moderator in accordance with the type of fuel. The heat generated in the uranium fuel is very high. If the cooling is not done then the fuel could be damaged or melted. There are several types of materials that are usually used as a coolant, such as light water, heavy water, liquid sodium metal, and gas. Selection of type of coolant depends also on the type of fuel. Fulfillment Energy Indoneseia that once rich with energy resources, is now no longer the case. Indonesian petroleum resources of around 321 billion barrels (1.2 percent of the world's potential), about 507 TSCF gas (3.3 percent of the world's potential), coal about 50 billion tonnes (3 per cent of the world's potential), approximately 27,000 MW of geothermal (40 percent of the potential of the world), and about 75,000 MW hydropower (0.02 per cent of the world's potential). Proved reserves of crude oil in 2002, about 5 billion barrels, proven natural gas reserves around 90 TSCF, and proven coal reserves of about 5 billion tons. With a production level as in 2002, and in the absence of new proven reserves, oil reserves will be exhausted within 10 years, 30 years of natural gas, and coal 50 years. Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) in the First Congress of Accounting Professional Organization Practitioner of Natural Resources and Environment in Baturaden, December 12, we estimate the oil reserves can only provide for up to seven years. How do we meet the energy needs of the future.
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Diesel engine driving

Diesel engine driving a generator that is widely used in the field, generally single-cylinder diesel engine water-cooled horizontal. Cooling water circulation system uses natural circulation or the cooling water circulation pump does not use circulators (water pump). Circulation of this kind took place because of the differences in specific gravity due to propagation of the cooling water heat received from the cylinder block. The cooling water circulation can be understood by considering the illustration above water heated furnace, the following:

High water temperature (heat) has a lower specific gravity and tend to move to the top (surface). Instead of water where the temperature is lower (cooler) its density will be higher and tend to move down (around the block cylinder). The advantage of this type does not require a circulation pump circulators so much simpler construction.
Broadly speaking, the amount of water in the cooling system can be divided into 3 types / construction, include: (a). Hopper type, (b). Radiator type and (c). Condenser type.
Diesel engine cooling system type hopper, the cooling effect is obtained with the cylinder block merambatkan heat to the cooling water, so the water will evaporate into the surface. Within a certain period of operation (40 minutes to 1 hour) of cooling water in the tank should be added. Indicator of the amount of cooling water hopper type typically use floating balls. If the ball is not visible apungnya, means the amount of cooling water has been depleted and need to be added. Diesel engine with radiator type cooling system, usually equipped with a cooling fan (cooling fan) and close the radiator. When the engine is operating, the water was around the block cylinder gets hot and moving up to the top of the tank by passing through the fins (fin) radiator. Obtained from the cooling effect of air flow from the cooling fan to the fins (fin) radiator. Radiator cap serves to increase the air pressure in the tank resulting in cooling water boiling point will be higher than 1000C, so it can slow down the process of evaporation. The advantage compared to the type of hopper is the frequency of addition of cooling water into the lower tank. Diesel motor with the type of condenser cooling system is also equipped with a cooling fan (cooling fan), but part of it is not closed (no radiator cap). Cooling effects utilizing the principle of condensation (condensation). Cooling water vapor is passed to the small pipes that fed air from the cooling fan, so it will condense and become water again. The water will be collected in the condenser tank. When the amount of cooling water in the tank bottom (above the cylinder block) is reduced, the air pressure will drop (happened kevacuman). This caused the water in the condenser tank is sucked down into the tank (in the block). Advantages type radiator and cooling system condenser type is compared with hopper type machine can be operated for about 10 hours continuously without adding cooling water into the tank.
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Sabtu, 16 Februari 2013

modulation radio receiver

Judging from the type of modulation radio receiver that is divided into two kinds of AM radio when the modulation amplitude modulation is used which has the nature of the modulated signal amplitude varies with variation in the signal amplitude information. The second type of radio receiver is an FM radio if the modulation frequency modulation is used, the frequency of the modulated signal varies with the signal amplitude variations information. Radio frequency carrier amplitude modulation (AM) in the range of 535 to 1605 kHz. Carrier frequency of 540 kHz to 1600 characterized by intervals of 10 kHz. FM radio has a band of 88 to 108 MHz between television channels 6 and 7 VHF. FM stations are marked with a flashlight at 200 kHz frequency separation starts at 88.1 MHz for a maximum of 100 stations. FM station has a maximum deviation of 75 kHz from 25 kHz frequency flashlights upper and lower "guide lines" to minimize interaction with the frequency band setting. Understanding information is transmitted from the AM radio station AM radio, electrically sound image (taken from a microphone or any other program sources) are used to modulate the amplitude of a carrier wave is then transmitted from the transmitting antenna radio station. This contrasts with the FM radio signal which is used for the modulation of the carrier frequency. The spectrum of frequencies between 535 kHz and 1605 kHz and the carrier wave are separated by 10 kHz. Radio receiver can tune to receive one of a number of radio carrier frequency in the reception area. This makes it practical to move the signal from the carrier frequency of the radio medium in the process now where the heterodyne. Hetero-dyne receiver, most electronically maintain Mene-middle frequency setting that's just a fraction of As with receiver circuit must be set when the station changed. Heterodyne Heterodyne Principle Radio is broadcast signal transfer method from a local carrier at intermediate frequencies specified in the receiver so that the receiver does not have many set back when the channel changed. Interference of two waves will produce a frequency kites and this technique provides the radio settings to force a particular radio frequency generating kites called intermediate frequency or IF abbreviated. Elektromanetik carrier wave that carries the signal with the help of amplitude modulation or frequency modulation of the carrier signal can move in different frequency by a process called heterodyning. The move was met with mixed carrier modulated with a different frequency of a sine wave. This process produces kites frequency equal to the difference between frequencies. Mixing the beats coming from the carrier frequency and the local oscillator produces intermediate frequency (IF), the amount fixed. Most radio receivers can be constructed to use the radio signal that much. Local oscillator frequency is set to produce the same beats with fixed frequency IF. By heterodyning system with just one radio receiver, can be set for reception of local radio stations anywhere, but if it does not use heterodyning would require a radio receiver for each transmitter station. Radio Signal Radio communication is generally in the form of transmission of AM or FM radio. Single broadcast signal, thus a monophonic audio signal, can be done with direct amplitude modulation or frequency modulation. Provides a more complex transmission lines that emerge from the sum and difference frequencies resulting superposition of multiple carrier wave signal. For example in stereo FM transmission, the number of left and right channels (L + R) is used for frequency modulation of the carrier and separate sub-carrier at 38 kHz is also superimposed on the carrier. Sub-carrier is modulated with the difference signal (LR) so ditransimisikan signal into separate left and right to produce stereo at diplayback. In television transmission, the three signals must be sent to the carrier, namely audio, image intensity and chrominance images. This process uses two sub-carriers. Other transmissions such as satellite TV and telephone transmission distance using a lot of sub-carriers to transmit multiple signals simultaneously. AM radio uses electricity picture of a sound source with an amplitude modulated carrier wave. At the end of the receiver in the detection process this image released back of the carrier and tuned back into sound by loudspeakers.
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electronic circuits

This article I want to discuss about electronic circuits. It has been quite a lot of what I discussed in previous articles, but when I look, it turns out that I have not discussed what electronic circuits. Now before I go any further, let's first look at computer or a television. We can see in it a series of foreign objects attached to a pair of printed circuit boards. These objects exist elliptic, long box, square, flat, and there are many of them unique shape. The objects are arranged neatly and row located, quite interesting to see. These objects are called electronic components, such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, ICs and other components. From the description above, it can be concluded that the electronic circuit is a circuit that consists of a variety of electronic components are arranged in such a way in order to function in accordance with the wishes of the designer. Basically, in the field of electronics, especially regarding how series an electronic device, all electronic components are not described in terms of real physical, but manifested in the scheme, called schema electronics.

As shown above, all of the components are not depicted real, but only in the form of symbols, codes, symbols, and other signs that each has its own meaning. In making electronic circuits, based on experience, usually people think that by putting a few pieces of the components according to drawing schematics, he will be convinced that trial be successful. Technically might be able to succeed by chance, but if a failure he can not do anything about it. In studying electronic circuit, but to be able to read schematics drawings, also must understand the type of components to be used in electronic circuits to be made. Furthermore it should be noted that other support tools are tools such as screwdrivers, pliers, soldering, saws, hammers, and others. There should also note that the electronic components on the market, in general, not always in good condition. Components to be used should be checked first with a gauge called AVO meter or multi meter. This tool is absolutely necessary for you if you like assemble an electronic device. Because if not on the test used to measure it, the possibility of failure can occur. Similarly, a brief description of these electronic circuits. Hopefully useful. Also follow any other articles that may be helpful for those of you about electronic aids.
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First time TV service

First time TV service
Electronic Components is the smallest part of an electronic circuit, or electronic components can be said to be the elements that make up an electronic circuit. If the electronic circuits that have a specific function are collected and form an electronic system, the electronic system is called a plane, for example: Aircraft Television formed from a collection of circuits that has a function as a tuner, IF, AGC, etc.. Electronic components that make up a television receiver, and there are a variety of different types, here the components are grouped by type for easy to search. Each component is discussed and described in detail, where any discussion of how characteristics include, among others, what basic ingredients, how the physical form and how the schematic drawing, how to find persamaanya if you can not find the same components etc, besides every ahir description is also shown what damage possible and often happens on these components, so it can help in the repair process. The components that make up a television set, among others: Passive components Resistors, Variable Resistor, Capacitor Active components Diodes, Transistors, ICs Inductor / Transformer Inductor, Transformer, Coil, Degausing Coil, Yoke, Flyback Transformer Display Seven Segment, CRT, LCD, Plasma Display Special component Relay, Opto Coupler, Cristal, Cristal Filter, Saw Filter, Delay Line Television is a broadcast tentacle picture. Word comes from the word tele television and vision; away with their respective sense (tele) and visible (vision). So mean visual or television can be seen from a distance. Findings television wheels aligned with the findings, because these findings could change the world civilization. Beginning from television of course can not be separated from the discovery of policy, law of electromagnetic waves discovered by Joseph Henry and Michael Faraday (1831) which is the beginning of the era of electronic communication. Then a row found cathode ray tube (CRT), the black and white television and color television system. Certainly the development of knowledge will continue to grow especially with the discovery of the LCD, which makes the TV in this day and age getting thinner with the photos that are not less good thing with the TV tube.

So at this time we should know very well about the TV system because almost all households have good black and white TV or a color. the types of damage and I know the damage:

Good Tips Techniques Basic Service TV BASIC AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES AND HOW TO FIX IT Here is a basic technique to analyze how the damage to the television: -The types of damage and I know the damage: 1. Totally dead. if the television suddenly dies, the first thing to do is: a. open smua existing couplers. b. see if the fuse / fuse broken, if broken try to replace with the same size trus ampere turn on. if the fuse broke again means local power supply is defective. The fix: Try measuring the besar.ukurannya elco 100uf/400v.ukur usually alternating avometer use a scale of 10 ohm.jika both disconnected likely broken diode or transistor. - Try test / measuring diodes that are near the switch on / off, there are 4 pieces . use avometer on a scale of 10 ohm.ukur alternating balik.jika rusak.ganti connect with both mean the same size. - Try measuring transistor large, footed tiga.ukur leg number 2 and 3 alternating use a scale of 10 ohm.jika avometer means rusak.ganti connect both with the same number. - If the measured elco already disconnected mean suply already bagus.coba turn on again - If still want Flash ndak try measuring the existing horizontal transistors deket plyback.caranya replace damaged diatas.jika equal with the number who tried to turn on lagi.insyaallh tv sama.trus can dah flame. Search Procedures Damage Efficiency measures required in the repair procedure is as follows.

1) The state of disorder known When receiving a TV that would be serviced, listen / check damage from consumer to facilitate easy inspection.

2) Estimate of Damaged Block The TV is turned on, set the controls noise, contrast, brightness and color. See symptoms appear on the TV screen for guessing which part is damaged. Make appropriate estimates of damaged block table damage.

3) Divide A Damaged Blocks Despite a series of suspicious has been determined, but the area being examined is extensive. Therefore, the more efficient the damaged part to be found if the area being examined more limited.

4) Find the section of Damaged After creating a suspected area more narrow, measuring voltage and resistance using Multitester. Block TV Color television system using three signals to work perfectly, the three signals are: • Signal sound carrier (FM) • picture carrier signal (AM) • Signal luminance (brightness) and chrominance signals synchronization (carrier color) In general, these signals are known as Signal Audio, Video Signal luminance (brightness) and chrominance signals Video (color), and thanks to the three signals allow us to see color images and hear sounds. The three signals are processed by different circuits, in which each series are grouped by function, but today most television is used in circuits that pack in an IC / Single chip that can hardly identify which parts of its part again unless we have a question or television schematic datasheets of Chip / IC is used. In addition to the three signal processing above, the television also has circuits horizontal deflection vetikal and useful for generating raster images on the tube, and - although it was not a major part of a television receiver - block remote-control circuit along controlnya also includes a series of very important the television generation. Here (in stages) discussed each function of blocks of color television sets where each block will be discussed in depth and detail, in addition to the discussion in ahir each block would show the symptoms if the block in question there is damage that will facilitate in the repair process. Below is shown a block diagram of PAL TV receiver. To go into further discussion you can right click on any image above or use the menu-in addition to the blocks or the link below Tuner RF amplifier, Mixer, Local Oscillator The series of Sound 5.5Mhz detector, Sound IF amplifier, FM detector, amplifier noise Circuit of Figure Picture IF amplifier, Video detector, AFT, AGC, Upholstery Video, Delay Line The series of Color Reproduction Amplifier Band-Pass, Element 1H delay, adder circuit-Deduction, phase switching circuit 180, Upholstery burs, Oscillator 4.43Mhz, UV amplifier, demodulator Synchronization circuit Toll Sync Separator, vertical pulse circuits, pulse circuits Horizontal Deflection Yoke Flyback Transformer Flyback transformer CRT tube Delta Type, Type In-Line, In-Line Type Trinitron The series of Power Supply Rectifier, regulator The type of Television Receivers Basically, television receiver system was divided into two, namely: Television black and white In black and white television images can not be viewed in accordance with the original color. Anything that looks dilayar glass looks just black and white. It is very different with color television, color picture that is displayed on screen will look similar to the originals. Color television picture we see on the television screen is a result of production from a camera. Object snapshot camera lens will be separated into three basic colors, namely red (R = red), green (G = green), and blue (B = blue). This separation results will be transmitted by television transmitter. Color TV transmitters emit signals: Audio (voice) Luminansi (image brightness) Krominansi (color) Sync (vertical / horizontal) Burst In color television receiver, all natural colors that have been separated into basic colors R (red), G (green), and B (blue) will be added back to the network color matrix to produce luminance signal Y and two signal krominansi, that V and U according to the following equation: Y = G+ 0.11BV +0.59 +0.30 R = 0.877 (R - Y) U = 0.493 (B-Y) In addition to pictures, television transmitters also carry voice signals are transmitted together with the picture signal in frequency modulation (FM) to avoid noise (noise) and interference. To transmit this signal, the transmitter and receiver must have the same color and sound. The system would have to follow a global standard and. In the picture there are several delivery systems, including: NTSC, PAL and SECAM.
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Selasa, 22 Januari 2013

HP charger is broken

In light post this time we will discuss about how to fix the HP charger is broken or how to deal with a dead cell phone charger and it can not be used. Cell phone charger is an important device that is sometimes forgotten. When the charger is broken, we are frantically looking for a loan for a new charger to suit our HP. Price cell phone charger is quite affordable, ranging from 15 thousand to the good quality the price is rather expensive. But if we are concerned there is no longer time to buy a charger or no money, it does not hurt to try to fix it yourself. I've tried several times to fix HP's own charger and it turns out the average successful. The damage is not too serious and still be able to look for replacement parts. I used to have ever been written about the damage mobile phone charger here: Mobile Charger Damage Service. Damage HP charger is somewhat different from the notebook charger damage. Okay, now we continue with a discussion of how to fix the HP charger is broken, here I take the example of the portable charger is often called desktop charger. The advantages of the HP type desktop charger is that it can be used for various types of batteries. If we buy a new one, it costs about 15-25 thousand. Here we try to fix it yourself, which costs only 200 dollars needed to buy a resistor. I think we've unpacked charger, just look for the resistor is installed in series with the AC socket (socket that will be connected to the electricity grid). In many cases, resistors with low resistance values ​​which were damaged. The function of the resistor that is the fuse, so if there is a voltage spike can lead to broken resistor. Try replaced with a new resistor, usually charger is able to power up. The fuse resistor resistance value between 0.1 to 10 ohms. If it is not broke resistors, other breakable parts like tiny transistors on the converter or a diode rectifier.
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the power up and down

If you find out what caused the power up and down like so many factors that can influence it. PLN's existing residents in homes with an electrical alternating current (AC) voltage which at times can be up and down because of the surge. The cause electrical shorting or fire due to electric short circuit sometimes has something to do with the voltage that is less stable. If we look at the cause, it's nothing to do with the PLN power plants, due to the large supply that must be met resulting in a decline in tension, especially in the evening hours. Location away from the center of power and cabling system is less than perfect can also cause unstable voltage. For example, a rural region that is far from the main mast, or the installation of sub-standard cables then chances are greater the voltage fluctuates. The impact of the electricity up and down is very pronounced in electronics devices, such as a television or computer, it's no wonder that we find hard drives or computer sound off. The existence of voltage spikes that can lead to sudden supply voltage into unstable electronic device, generally is damage caused both serious and mild. In severe cases will result in a short-circuit and burn, so do not be surprised if a fire due to electrical short connected. To overcome the problem of unstable electricity can use a voltage stabilizer or better using UPS.
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