CONNECTING WITH GENERATOR ENGINE DRIVER

In order to produce high-quality electricity (voltage and frequency stable), then the generator should work on rotational speed (rpm) that match the manufacturer's recommendation. To be able to rotate, the generator must be connected with an engine that can be a motor fuel, water turbines, steam turbines, windmill, waterwheel, etc.. In order for power plant performance and maximum efficiency, it should be designed so as to drive the engine and generator work on the ideal speed (peak speed) respectively. To achieve the ideal situation, it needs the appropriate kind of liaison with the speed ratio between the engine drive shaft with shaft generator. The ratio of rotational speed is there are 3 kinds:

1. An engine speed equal to the generator rotational speed.

For this situation, you can use direct connection in which an engine shaft is connected directly (coaxis) with shaft generator commonly used in motor gasoline portable generators. The second alternative, can be used direct-coupled like those used on lawn mowers. The third alternative, you can use an indirect connection that is system-belt pulley or gear system or a system-chain gear to gear (second pulley diameter or the number of second gear teeth must be the same).

2. Engine speed is lower than the rotational speed generator.

For this situation, it is necessary multiplication of rotation as a liaison system. If the speed difference is not too far (more than 1: 3), can be used single multiplication system is quite simple. The multiplication of these systems can be a pulley-belt system consisting of a large pulley on the engine drive shaft and a small pulley on the generator shafts are connected by a belt. The second alternative, can be a gear-chain system consisting of a gear (sprocket) of the engine shaft and a gear (sprocket), a small generator on the shaft which is connected by a chain. The third alternative, can be a gear to gear system that consists of a large gear on the engine drive shaft and a small gear on shaft generator which intersect each other.

If the speed difference is quite a distance (less than 1: 3), it is necessary to use graded multiplication system is quite complicated. For this purpose, can be used helical-type gear box as an alternative that is widely used. While WORM-type gear box can not be used for multiplication system because it is irreversible (can not be reversed). Alternatively, it can also be used pulley-belt system or a system of gear-storey terraced chain. The number of levels, depending on the total Multiplication Ration (TMR) is required.

3. Engine speed is higher than the generator rotational speed.

For this situation, reducing system required rotation as a liaison. If the speed difference is not too far away (less than 3: 1), can be used single reduction system is quite simple. The reduction system can be a pulley-belt system consisting of a small pulley on the engine shaft and a large pulley on the generator shaft which is connected by a belt. The second alternative, can be a gear-chain system consisting of a gear (sprocket) small engine shaft and a gear (sprocket) on the shaft of the generator is connected by a chain. The third alternative, can be a gear to gear system that consists of a small gear on the engine shaft and a large gear on the generator shaft which intersect each other.

If the difference in rotational speed is sufficiently far (more than 3: 1), it is necessary to use a multilevel system of reducing fairly complicated. For this purpose, can be used either type gear box helical or type of WORM as one alternative that is widely used. Alternatively, it can also be used pulley-belt system or a system of gear-storey terraced chain. The number of levels, depending on the Total Reduction Ratio (TRR) is required.

In most power plants, an engine rotational speed is not equal to the generator rotational speed. Therefore, one of the things to do in power system planning is to bridge the difference in rotational speed (rpm), ideally between the shaft generator with the turbine shaft. For that, need to be made reducing design a system or systems that function transform multiplication ideal shaft rotational speed to be the ideal speed shaft turbine generators without much loss of power. In principle, the system of reducing or multiplication system is all mechanical systems starting from the pulley or gear mounted on a turbine shaft and gear box (if any), up to the pulley or gear mounted on a generator. So not only the gear box that is part of the system or systems reducing multiplication rounds. Vice versa, reducing the system or systems is not always a multiplication of rotation gear box.

The difference between a reducing system and the system speed multiplication is the transformation that they generate. Reducing the system transforms into a high speed rotating speed is lower. While the multiplication system transforms low rotational speed becomes higher rotational speed. Reducing system is used if an engine rotational speed (including turbines) higher than the rotational speed generator. Such a situation commonly encountered in hydropower, power plant, PLTGU, and PLTP. While the multiplication system is used if the engine rotational speed is lower than the rotational speed generator. Such a situation commonly encountered in MHP is using windmills trajectory as propulsion. In this article will only discuss about reducing system only. The multiplication of the system will be discussed in a separate article if there is a request.

Reducing ROUND SYSTEM

Reducing system rotation discussed below can be applied to all types of power plants as well as on other projects that require a reducing system of rotation in general.

In order to determine the most appropriate type of reducing agent to the needs, keep in mind the technical data of the first prime mover and generator among other things:

a. Engine speed (rpm) that gives the highest conversion efficiency (peak speed). If desired, may also not peak speed (typically above peak speed) with intent to obtain greater power output but must be willing to sacrifice a little efficiency.

b. Generator rotational speed (rpm) recommended by the manufacturer. Generator rotational speed must follow standard with a tolerance of about 2-5% only. If too high or too low over the tolerance limit, then the quality of the electricity generated will be low quality (voltage and frequency does not match the standard).

c. The power produced by prime mover (watts or HP) on the operating speed specified in section a above

d. Power from the generator (watts or HP) on the recommended operating speed on the b factory above

After all data abcd section above have been completed, the next step is to perform analysis and calculations by following these steps:

1. Ensure that the engine power (data c) must be 5-10% greater than the power generator (Data d) for the system to work normally as expected. It is caused by loss of power due to the slip and / or friction in mechanical systems such as bearings, gears, belts, chains, etc.. Losing power can reach 5-10 percent of total power. If you find an engine power not greater than the power generator, it must do the replacement / change of plans. The first alternative is to enlarge the power of the driving machine if possible. The second alternative is to replace the generator with less power.

2. Calculating Total Reduction Ratio (TRR), the ideal data required by a and b above.

3. After getting the ideal TRR, the next step is to design a series of reducing systems have the same actual TRR TRR ideal. If unable to obtain a truly equal, then it could use a little above the actual TRR TRR denan ideal maximum tolerance of 5%. As for the choice of reducing the system to be used, need to consider the size of the TRR with guidelines as follows:

• If the TRR is less than 3, you can use a simple reduction system (see picture). The reduction system can be a pulley-belt system consisting of a small pulley on the engine shaft and a large pulley on the generator shaft which is connected by a belt. The second alternative, can be a gear-chain system consisting of a gear (sprocket) small engine shaft and a gear (sprocket) of the shaft generator connected by chain.

• If the TRR is more than than 3, it is necessary to use the system more complex multilevel reduction. For this purpose, reducing the system can be used both stratified-belt pulley systems and gear-chain systems. The number of levels, depending on the TRR is necessary. If TRR is less than 3, just one level. If TRR between 3 and 9, could be 2 levels. If TRR between 9 and 27, could be 3 levels. And if TRR more than 9, to consider use of the gear box so as not to be too complicated. The gear box that can be used to choose which type of helical or type of WORM. In addition to selecting the proper ratio, the selection of gear boxes are also required to take into a force to be assuming for durable and efficient. Gear box is too small, will be quickly damaged. If it is too big, wasteful and inefficient because the cost of considerable loss of power. Regarding the type of gear box, a type of helical relatively safer than the WORM type if it is used to rotate the burden of having such a large anguler momentum generator. Because it is irreversible, WORM-type gear box can fall out if the belt connecting the turbine and gear box broke while it is spinning fast. That was caused by the momentum of the generator anguler which will force the output gear box to keep spinning for a few moments before the momentum runs out and stops. It will not happen in type helical gear box if the belt is broken because it is reversible. Irreversible nature of the gear box type construction gearnya WORM caused by mechanical player shaped like a guitar string. With such constructions, the player can move the winding strings, but winding strings can not move the player and if forced to fall out. Gear box in any car, all types of helical, so definitely safe to use for the dynamo. But it can be used only if the ratio is suitable. The formula to calculate the ratio of helical-type gear box (if it did not include the ratio) is:

While the ratio of WORM-type gear box more easily calculated because the ratio is equal to the number of teeth on the gear output.

Note:

If you will use a system of pulley-belt or gear-chain system either single or bunk, there's no way it calculated its own (see the example in figure). Likewise, if using a gear-chain system, the actual TRR can be calculated in the same way simply by changing the diameter of the pulley into the number of teeth. It was not discussed at length here because your choice is already directed to the gear box car that has been known ratio. If the gear box if the ratio of cars to be used is not known, can be made a sketch and description of the number of teeth and the direction of rotation to be calculated accurately ratio. Of course, should be calculated separately separately for each number speed (gear) starting from 1 to a top speed gear (highest gear) available. The trick is simple sketches and data origin. I myself do not have data on the ratio of the gear box car so that should count them first when needed.

## Selasa, 22 Maret 2011

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