Jumat, 09 Juli 2010

The working principle Paiton units 7 and 8 in general is a coal burning boiler to heat water and turn water into a very hot steam

BASIC PROCESS Paiton Unit 7 and 8

The working principle Paiton units 7 and 8 in general is a coal burning boiler to heat water and turn water into a very hot steam which is used to drive turbines and generate electricity from the generator coil in the magnetic field. System settings used at the power plant uses a closed loop system settings, where water was used for several rounds of the process is the same water, just need to be added if the existing level of less than point sets. Changing shape, to a certain level of water tangible, but at another level intangible steam.

The process begins with water that is pumped into the condenser, then the condenser is pumped to the polisher to be processed so that the deposition of corrosion and missing, after which it is pumped to the Feed Water Heater 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be heated and then poured into Daerator to eliminate gas - O2 and CO2 and then pumped back into the Feed Water Heater 6, 7, 8 which would then be forwarded to increased temperature in the economizer and then headed to the steam drum to be separated between the steam and water, after which the superheated steam that is going through the First Super Heater, Secondary Super Heater and form a super heated steam that will be used to rotate the HP turbine and the pressure and temperature will drop so the SH steam need reheating which occurs at Re Heater, Re Heater from this SH Steam will be returned to Play the IP and LP turbines. This will occur within the turbine conversion of thermal energy from the steam into mechanical energy that causes the rotor to rotate the turbine to spin. This rotor rotation that will move the generator and finally by the generator mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy.

COAL Handling
Coal is the main fuel Paiton Unit 7 and 8. Coal is used in the form of Adaro coal, Arutmin, Kideco with 1.5% ash content, coal was taken from a coal mine in southern Kalimantan and will continue disuply during the operation. Shipping coal to the plant is done by using two ships with a capacity of approximately 43 000 tonnes, which would then be accommodated in the Coal Pile with a capacity of 670 000 tonnes for use as fuel. Before being used as a fuel, coal will go through several processes, namely Stacking, Reclaiming and Processing. But Coal Handling will only carry out the process of stacking and Reclaming, while for the processing included in the boiler operation and will be discussed in further discussion. Stacking is the process of accumulation of coal from ships. While processing the coal handling system of Shiloh until ready for use in boilers.

Stacking is the process of moving coal from ships into the Coal Pile. Some of the other terms in Stacking.

Jetty is a dock or berth at the coal-carrying ships Paiton Unit 7 and 8. The depth of this pier is 18 m from the seabed, allowing big ships docked. At Unit 7 and have two of the jetty Jetty Jetty A and B. Each has four fruit Jetty Doc Hopper Car that function to move the coal from the ship to the Belt Conveyor. Doc Hopper Cars position can be altered in accordance with the ship's position, this is controlled by the operator of the Coal Unloading Building Control (CUCB).

Conveyor Belt

Conveyor Belt-shaped kind of large belt made of rubber that move through the Head and Tail Pulley Pulley, both serve to drive the Conveyor Belt and Pulley Tansioning functioning as a conveyor belt. To support its weight belt conveyor fitted coal transported at a certain distance between Idler Pulley Head and Tail Pulley. Idler is a rotating bearing that was passed by the Conveyor Belt. Coal is transported by conveyor poured from a container launcher (Chute) tip of Tail Pulley then moved toward the direction of Head Pulley. Typically, the load of coal will fall into the tub the other launchers, located under the Head Pulley to be forwarded to another conveyor or into storage tanks. Conveyor between each branch with one another are connected with the Transfer House, in addition to the conveyor belt also added a few accessories that aims to increase its flexibility, among others:

  1. Done automatically if the metal detected at the coal sampling stopped.
  2. Metal Detector, Is a tool to detect metals in the mixed coal in the delivery process.
  3. Magnetic Separator, to separate the metals contained in coal in the delivery process.
  4. Belt Scale, to determine the amount of weight tonnase coal transported by belt conveyor.
  5. Dust Supasion serves to:
    - Water Polution controller
    - Spraying ait on coal
    - Saves the coal in order not to dust
    - Preventing the occurrence of sparks caused by heat from the coal dust.


Reclaming is the process of taking coal from the Coal Pile and distribute it to Shiloh. Some terms in reclaiming among others:
READ MORE - The working principle Paiton units 7 and 8 in general is a coal burning boiler to heat water and turn water into a very hot steam

Modem (modulator-demodulator)

Modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device which is currently the most widely used to connect to the internet, particularly through the phone line. Physically, the modem can be distinguished as an internal modem and external modem. Besides, we know the division based on speed and how it works, whether it be software or hardware modem. There are a few bonus more technical nature, such as error control, data compression protocol Internal and External modems

As shown from its name, an external modem device outside

CPU. external modem connected to the CPU via COM or USB port. modem of this type typically use a separate voltage source adapter. The advantage of this type of modem usage is a good enough portability easily removable for use on other computers. Besides using an external modem, there should be no expansion slots that were sacrificed so that it can be used for other purposes, especially if the mainboard is used only to provide a bit expansion slot. external modem is also equipped with an indicator light that enables us to monitor modem status. The disadvantage is more expensive than internal modems. external modems also require a separate place to put it even smaller.

Unlike an external modem, internal modem installed directly inside the CPU. Physically, the form of an internal modem card plugged into one of the expansion slot on the mainboard, usually on the ISA or PCI slot. Use of this type of modem has several advantages, among other places and is more efficient in terms of price is more economical than an external modem. Because they have been installed in the CPU, the modem type does not require an adapter as an external modem so impressed with the system more compact without a lot of milling about the cable that could give the impression of less tidy. However, the internal modem has a weakness as the absence of indicators that can be found on external modems. As a result somewhat difficult to monitor the status of the modem (though it can be done via software). In addition, the internal modem is not using their own voltage source to be supplied from the power supply to the CPU. Heat from the components in a series of internal modems will also increase the temperature within the CPU box.

Modem Speed

The speed of a modem is measured in units bps (bits per second) or kbps (kilobits per second). The amount varies between 300 bps to 56.6 kbps, but the speed commonly used today ranges from 14.4 to 56.6 kbps. The higher the speed the better course because it will shorten the connection time and save on telephone costs. The connection speed is also very dependent on the quality of phone lines used. 56.6 kbps modem is usually very rarely reach top speed. Generally, the fastest connection that can be achieved through conventional phone lines are ranging from 45-50 kbps for downstream, depending on the distance from the central telephone lines are used (of course the closer the better), whereas for the upstream maximum of only 33.6 kbps. This deals with the limitations of phone lines that are basically not designed for high speed data communications.

Hardware and Software-based modems

In addition to the second division of the above, we also know the terms of hardware or software modem. modem that works in hardware using a special chip to handle data communications functions, while on a software modem, this job was taken over by a driver program. Using software modems will be enough CPU work load, and thus would require a system with a fast processor (Pentium processor recommended minimum using 200 Mhz). Loss in performance will be felt when using this type of modem. A Celeron 400-based machines, for example, is only able to work like a PC Pentium Classic while online by using a software modem. Physically there is almost no striking features that distinguish between these two types of modems. However, nowadays almost all PCI-based internal modems on the market is a software modem. These types of modems are generally sold at a price much cheaper than hardware-based modems. Because of the availability factor of the driver, then the software modems are generally only works in Windows OS environment so that the type of modem is also often referred to as Winmodems.

Meaning of indicator light on external modems

OH: Off Hook
Indicates that the modem was working. If likened to a telephone, OH will light up when the receiver was appointed and die when the receiver is placed.

CD: Carrier Detect
Indicates whether there are carriers that are sent from the modem to be contacted or not. When there is a connection with another modem, CD lamp is lit.

AA: Auto Answer
Modem facility that can automatically answer the call from another modem. If the AA indicator lights up, the modem can perform handshaking automatically.

EC: Error Control
Modem facilities for error correction. EC indicators are illuminated to show the modem error correction facility is active.

TD: Transmit Data
The indicator will light when the modem is sending data.

RD: Receive Data
The indicator will light when the modem receives the data.

DTR: Data Terminal Ready
The indicator shows the modem is ready for use to connect to another modem
READ MORE - Modem (modulator-demodulator)