Selasa, 22 Maret 2011

The formation process of Crude Oil




The formation process of Crude Oil
Crude oil (English: petroleum, from the Latin: petrus), also dubbed as the black gold is a viscous liquid, dark brown or greenish flammable, which is located in the upper layers of some areas of the earth's crust. Petroleum and natural gas derived from ocean microorganisms, plants and animals that died approximately 150 million years ago. The remains of these organisms to settle on the ocean floor, then covered by mud. Mud layer gradually turned into rocks because of the influence of pressure on top layer. Meanwhile, with increasing pressure and temperature, anaerobic bacteria outlines the remnants microorganisms and converted it to oil and gas.
The process of oil and gas formation takes millions of years. Oil and gas are formed permeate the porous rock such as water in the rock. Oil and gas can also migrate from one region to another, then terkosentrasi if blocked by an impermeable layer.
Even though oil and natural gas are formed on the ocean floor, many of petroleum resources located in the mainland. This occurs because the movement of the earth's crust, so that some of the ocean into the land.
Today there are two main theories developed on the origins of petroleum, among others:

1. Inorganic Theory (abiogenesis)

Barthelot (1866) suggested that the oil contained in the alkali metals, which in a free state with high temperatures will be in contact with CO2 to form asitilena. Then Mandeleyev (1877) suggested that petroleum is formed due to the influence of steam on the carbide-carbide metal in the earth. Even more extreme is the claim some experts who argue that oil began to form since prehistoric times, long before the earth was formed and together with the formation of the earth. The statement was based on the fact finding of hydrocarbon material within a few rocks and meteors in the atmosphere some other planet. Generally stated as below:

Based on the theory of inorganic, petroleum formation based on chemical processes, namely:

a. The theory of heat alkalization with CO2 (Berthelot)

The reactions that occur:

alkali metal carbide + CO2

carbide + H2O ocetylena

C2H2 C6H6 other components

In other words that there is oil in the alkali metals in a state of free and high temperature. When CO2 from the air in contact with hot alkali before then will be formed ocetylena. Ocetylena will be changed to benzene due to high temperatures. The weakness of this metal is not available free of alkali metal in the earth's crust.

b. The theory of heat carbide with water (Mendeleyef)

The assumption used is no iron carbide in the earth's crust which is then in contact with water to form hydrocarbons, the weakness is not enough carbide in nature.

PROCESS OF FORMATION OF PETROLEUM

2.Teori Organic (biogenesis)
Based on the theory of biogenesis, petroleum formed due to a permanent small leak in the carbon cycle. This carbon cycle occurred between the surface of the earth's atmosphere, which is depicted with two arrows with opposite direction, where the carbon is transported in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). In the first, assimilate carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, meaning that CO2 is extracted from the atmosphere by photosynthetic organisms land and sea. At the direction of both the CO2 released back into the atmosphere through respiration of living things (plants, animals and microorganisms).


P.G. Mackuire who first put forward his opinion that petroleum comes from plants. Several arguments have been advanced to prove that petroleum derived from organic substances, namely:
- Crude petroleum oil have to play the field polarization properties, is caused by the presence of cholesterol or fatty substances contained in blood, whereas organic substances are not contained in the blood and can not rotate the polarization field.
- Crude petroleum oil containing porphyrin compound or substance that consists of hydrocarbons with the element vanadium, nickel, etc..
- The composition of hydrocarbons consisting of C and H atoms are very similar to organic matter, which consists of C, H and O. Although organic matter menggandung oxygen and nitrogen is quite large.
- Hydrocarbons contained in the sediment layer and an integral part of sedimentation.
- Practically layer of oil contained in the cambium until pleistosan.
- Crude oils contain chlorophyll like plants.



The process of petroleum formation consists of three levels, namely:
1. The establishment itself, consists of:
- The collection of organic matter in sediments
- Preservation of organic matter in sediments
- Transformation of organic matter into petroleum.
2. Migration of petroleum which are formed and dispersed in the lapisansedimen trapped.
3. Accumulation of oil drops dispersed in a layer of sediment up to berkumpil a commercial accumulation.

Organic chemical processes in general can be solved by experiments in the laboratory, but a variety of geological factors on how the presence of petroleum and its distribution within the sediment must also be reviewed. This fact is concluded by Cox who then known as Cox fence are:
Petroleum is always contained in sedimentary rocks and commonly in marine sediments, sediment fesies major oil found around the coast.
Memeng petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons.
The average temperature reservior 107 ° C and oil still can survive up to 200 ° C. Above this temperature forfirin have not survived.
Petroleum is always formed in a state of marked reduction of forfirin and sulfur.
Petroleum can withstand the pressure changes from 8-10000 psi.
The process of transformation of organic matter into petroleum.

There are several things that affect the above events, including:
1. Thermal Degradation
As a result of sediment exposed to landfill and it will arise pembanaman pressure and temperature changes. Changes in temperature is a very important factor.
2. Reaction catalyst
The existence of a catalyst to speed up chemical processes.
3. Radioaktivasi
Pembombanderan Effect of fatty acids by alpha particles forming dapay paraffin hydrocarbons. This shows the influence of organic substances radioactive.
4. Bacterial activity.
Bacteria have a great potential in petroleum hydrocarbon formation process and play a part of since the demise of the organic compounds until the time of diagnosis, and prepare the conditions that allow formation of petroleum.

Organic matter as source material
Type oragink substance which is used as a source of crude oil according to the experts dap [at concluded that the type of organic matter which is the major petroleum-forming substance is an organic lipidzat can form the life of the sea or land and can be divided into two types, namely: those derived from vegetable and animal .

COMPOSITION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLEUM and NATURAL GAS

Petroleum and natural gas is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. Hydrocarbon component is the component most widely contained in minyaak and natural gas. Natural gas consists of low interest alkanes, namely methane, ethane, propane, and butane. In addition to alkanes there are also many other gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), some also contain helium gas wells.

While the hydrocarbons contained in petroleum primarily alkanes and cycloalkanes, other compounds contained in crude oil include sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and compounds containing metal constituents, especially Nickel, Iron and Copper. The composition of petroleum varies considerably from one well to other wells and from region to another.

Comparison of the elements contained in crude oil varies widely. Based on the analysis, the data obtained as follows:
Carbon: 83.0 to 87.0%
Hydrogen: 10.0 to 14.0%
Nitrogen: 0.1 to 2.0%
Oxygen: 0.05 to 1.5%
Sulfur: 0.05 to 6.0%

The structure of hydrocarbons found in crude oil:
1. Alkane (paraffin) CnH2n + 2, it has a straight chain alkanes and branched, this fraction is the largest in the crude oil.
2. Cycloalkanes (napten) CnH2n, cycloalkanes anyone has a ring of 5 (five), namely siklopentana or ring 6 (six) of cyclohexane.

siklopentana

cyclohexane


3. Aromatic CnH2n -6


having aromatic rings 6

Aromatic found only in small quantities, but very much needed in gasoline because:
- Have an anti knock a high price
- Good storage stability
- And other uses as fuels (fuels)
The proportion of the three types of hydrocarbons is highly dependent on the source of petroleum. In general, alkanes are hydrocarbons that most but sometimes (referred to as crude napthenic) containing cycloalkane as the largest component, while the aromatic always a component of the least.

Substance-Substance Impurities are often present in crude oil:
Sulfur Compound
Crude oil density higher sulfur content has a more tinggu too. The presence of sulfur in petroleum are often many consequences, for example in gasoline can cause corrosion (particularly in cold conditions or watery), because formation of acid produced from sulfur oxides (as a result of burning gasoline) and water.
Compound Oxygen
Total content of oxygen in the gas are less than 2% and rising with the increase in boiling point fractions. Oxygen content can be ascending if the product was long associated with the air. Oxygen in the oil is in the form of bond as carboxylic acids, ketones, esters, ethers, anhydrides, and disiklo monosiklo compounds and phenols. As the carboxylic acid form Naphthenat acid (alicyclic acid) and aliphatic acids.
Nitrogen Compound
Generally, nitrogen content in the oil is very low, ie from 0.1 to 0.9%. Contained the highest content of the type Asphalitik. Nitrogen has toxic properties of the catalyst and to form a gum / sap on fuel oil. Highest nitrogen content present in fractions of high boiling point. Nitrogen base class that has a relatively low molecular weight can be extracted with dilute mineral acid, while having a high molecular weight can not be extracted with dilute mineral acid.
Metallic constituents
Metals such as iron, copper, particularly nickel and vanadium in catalytic cracking processes affect catalyst activity, because it can lower gasoline products, generate a lot of gas and coke formation. At high temperature power generator, for example oil-fired gas turbine, the constituent metals, especially vanadium to form a crust on the turbine rotor. Ash produced from burning fuel containing mainly sodium and vanadium to react with refactory furnace (refractory bricks), causing a decrease in melting point so that the mixture of refractory damage it.

PETROLEUM PROCESSING

Petroleum is usually located 3-4 km below sea level. Petroleum is obtained by making the well bore. Crude oil gained collected in tankers or flowed through pipes into the tank station or oil refinery.
Crude oil (cude oil) black viscous liquid and smelled dreadful. Crude oil can not be used as fuel or for other purposes, but must be processed first. Crude oil contains about 500 species of hydrocarbons with the number of atoms C-1 through 50. The boiling point of hydrocarbons increases with increasing number of C atoms within the molecule. Therefore, the processing is done through distillation of petroleum-rise, where crude oil is separated into groups (fractions) with a similar boiling point.

In general, Petroleum Processing is described as follows:

Click on the icon below to view the processing of crude oil:
Distillation.
Cracking.
Reforming.
Alkylation.
Treating.

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