Senin, 24 Januari 2011

digital circuit


digital circuit, electronic circuit that can take on only a finite number of states. That is contrasted with analog circuits, whose voltages or other quantities vary in a continuous manner. Binary (two-state) digital circuits are the most common. The two possible states of a binary circuit are represented by the binary digits, or bits, 0 and 1. The states are also commonly referred to as "on" and "off" or "high" and "low" (see information theory). The simplest forms of digital circuits are built from logic gates, the building blocks of the digital computer. Since most of the physical variables encountered in the real world, e.g., position and temperature, exist in analog form, they are represented electrically by continuously varying currents and voltages in analog circuits. To make digital and analog circuits compatible special converters are used-either analog-to-digital or digital-to-analog depending on the direction of information flow. Digital circuits simulate continuous functions with strings of bits; the more bits that are used, the more accurately the continuous signal can be represented. For example, if 16 bits are used to represent a varying voltage, the signal can be assigned one of more than 65,000 different values. Digital circuits are more immune to noise than analog circuits, and digital signals can be stored and duplicated without degradation (see compact disc). Digital circuits can often manipulate signals more effectively-and less expensively-than analog circuits. Those reasons helped digital systems to succeed over all analog contenders for proposed high-definition television in the United States.

Information can be represented and stored on a variety of electrical/mechanical devices. In many cases, the information relates to measurable variables such as elapsed time or total rainfall or accumulated electrical charge (for which the hourglass, raingauge, and capacitor, respectively, are suitable representation devices). But what about abstract information, such as quantities in mathematics? Here we create an analogy between something that can be stored and measured in an electrical/mechanical device and a mathematical value. For example, we can assign an equivalence between mathematical value and electrical charge. The extent to which we can operate on that electrical charge via the capacitor and our measuring instruments is the degreee to which we can perform analogous mathematical calculations.

There are problems, however, with relating mathematics to storable parameters on physical devices. Two of the more important ones are 1) measuring instruments are rarely more accurate than three decimal digits--so mathematics carried out through these devices would have intrinsic limited accuracy; 2) there is typically unrecoverable loss of information--a capacitor could leak away part of its charge, i.e., its analogous mathematical value would arbitrarily change.

But there is a solution to these problems: store mathematical values in discrete rather than analog form. Here one uses devices whose variations are limited to discrete states--typically two, e.g., on or off, positive or negative, closed or open. Then, by representing mathematical quantities in a number system having only two digits--a binary number system--any value can be represented with arbitrary accuracy by linking together a sequence of two-state devices and setting the appropriate state for each device. Information integrity in this discrete representation is better than that of analog representation because here information loss requires an arbitrary change of state of a device, not a drift in value. That is much less likely, and there are ways to correct for it.

Computers

Computers are developed to store and mathematically manipulate quantitative information. Earlier computers were analog--usually electrical or mechanical. Circuits and mechanisms were built to represent fixed mathematical problems with results appearing in the form of a final voltage or a rotation angle of a gear. The electrical and mechanical equivalents of addition, multiplication, integration, and differentiation were incorporated into these computers. Complex problems could be solved, albeit with the accuracy problems mentioned above.

Then the digital computer emerged. Here the electrical and mechanical analogies for mathematical operations are replaced by the digital manipulation of 1's and 0's--the two possible states of binary devices storing information. How does one carry out mathematics with binary devices? That is the topic of this exercise.

Binary Logic

The objective is to devise and to piece together a series of binary logic elements to effect an ultimate mathematical operation such as addition, or subtraction, or multiplication. It is necessary and sufficient to consider logic elements for which there are two binary inputs and one binary output. We consider three logic elements from which all binary logic may be constructed: the AND, OR, and NOT gates.

Problems

Note: in the problems that follow, use the circuit builder to develop your circuits. When you link to the circuit builder you will be asked to specify the number of inputs and outputs--that will be determined, of course, by the problem. You will then be presented with the circuit display having the specified number of inputs and outputs. To build your circuit, drag logic components into the circuit area. Inputs (circles) may be connected to outputs (squares) by clicking first on one, then dragging to the other and releasing the mouse button. (A single output (square) may be connected to several inputs (circles), but only one output may be connected to any input.) Once your circuit is completed you can choose either single input or all inputs. With the single input option, you can specify a particular bit configuration of inputs. Once these inputs are specified, the state (1 or 0) of each logic line will be displayed. This will give you an opportunity to find errors in your circuit. With the "all possible inputs" option, outputs for all possible inputs will be presented. This should be your final confirmation that your circuit operates correctly.

Click here to view the available logic elements, their graphic representation, and their input/output tables.

1. Confirm that each of the elementary circuits behaves as advertised. That is, use the circuit builder to establish the logic behavior of AND, NOT, OR, NAND, NOR. These will all be two-input and one output circuits (except for NOT, which will be one input and one output).

2. Using only the component NAND, create a circuit that is equivalent to the logic of an AND gate. Do the same to emulate a NOT gate. Do the same to emulate an OR gate. (If this is doable, it means that all binary logic circuitry can ultimately be generated from the single logic element NAND).

3. Using only the component NOR, see if you can create circuits equivalent to AND, OR, and NOT is you did in problem 2.

4. Using only AND, NOT, and OR produce a three-input AND circuit, i.e., the output is 0 unless all three inputs are a 1. (You don't have to use all three circuit elements.)

5. Using only AND, NOT, and OR produce a three-input OR circuit, ie., the output is 1 if any of the inputs is 1.

6. Create a two-input "adder" with two outputs: the one-digit result of the add, and the value of a "carry" bit. In binary arithmetic, 1+1=0 with a carry=1.

7. One of the more interesting public works problems is the "Superbowl" problem. At the beginning of halftime during the Superbowl, 35 million toilets are flushed almost simultaneously. The resulting loss of water pressure wreaks havoc on many municipal water systems. Here you will solve the problem for a "three toilet" system. Devise a logic circuit whose "1" inputs represent "flushes" and whose "1" outputs represent opened water-feed valves. If no more than one toilet is flushed, then that toilet's water valve opens, the others remaining closed. If more than one toilet is flushed, then all the water valves remain closed.


8. You are designing a robot to move toward a light source. Three photosensors SL, SC, and SR are mounted at the front of the robot pointing 45o to the left, straight ahead, and 45o to the right, respectively. Two wheels WL and WR are powered depending on the output of the sensors. If SL detects light, the robot is pointing too far to the right, and the right wheel WR must be powered up to turn the robot to the left. The opposite is necessary if SR receives light. If only the forward-pointing sensor SC is lit, then both wheels WL and WR should be powered to propel the robot forward. If one treats the sensors as having binary outputs, i.e., either "on" or "off", and the powered wheels as being "on" or "off", a simple logic circuit can be used to actuate the wheels under each sensor condition. Create such a logic circuit using only NAND gates, and using the least number of these.

9. This picture is a schematic diagram of a 14-pin CMOS chip that contains 4 NAND gates. Your task is to design a printed circuit board that implements the robot circuit you produced in problem 8. Using as many CMOS chips as necessary, and taking into consideration which pins constitute inputs and outputs, create the circuit by connecting the appropriate pins. But now, try to route the connections so that the "wires" don't cross one another. This is a typical problem in printed circuit design. The objective is to "etch" the circuit onto a single layer of a copper-coated circuit board which contains pin holes to accommodate the chips. (Note: this problem does not require the use of the CIRCUIT BUILDER. Just sketch out the connections between the chip(s).
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AND OR





In this animated AND Logic example of Doors Opening and Closing, you can see that in order for the "Light" to get through the house, the front door AND the back door must be Open.

Same example: if either the front door OR the back door is Closed the light does NOT get through.
In this animated OR Logic example, you can see that in order to get light through the house: the left front door OR the right front door (or both) must be Open.
Same example: in order to block the light through the house: the left front door AND the right front door must be Closed.

In order for the Output of an AND Logical Function to be TRUE: input (1) AND input (2) must both be TRUE. This is Positive Logic. Hint: TRUE is when the switch is closed, applying power to the LED. FALSE is when the switch is open, NOT applying power to the LED)



Using the Same Function --It is also correct to say: If either input (1) OR input (2) (or both) is NOT TRUE the Output Will be FALSE. This is Negative Logic.
In order for the Output of an OR Logical Function to be TRUE: either
input (1) OR input (2) (or both) must be TRUE. This is Positive Logic.



Using the Same Function --It is also correct to say: In order for the Output to be FALSE: input (1) AND input (2) must both be FALSE. This is Negative Logic.

Remember:
1) A Positive AND gate is a Negative OR gate
2) A Positive OR gate is a Negative AND gate
Logic Element Symbols

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Digital electronics



Digital electronics represent signals by discrete bands of analog levels, rather than by a continuous range. All levels within a band represent the same signal state. Relatively small changes to the analog signal levels due to manufacturing tolerance, signal attenuation or parasitic noise do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry.

In most cases the number of these states is two, and they are represented by two voltage bands: one near zero volts and a higher level near the supply voltage, corresponding to the "false" ("0") and "true" ("1") values of the boolean domain respectively.

One advantage of digital circuits when compared to analog circuits is that signals represented digitally can be transmitted without degradation due to noise. For example, a continuous audio signal, transmitted as a sequence of 1s and 0s, can be reconstructed without error provided the noise picked up in transmission is not enough to prevent identification of the 1s and 0s. An hour of music can be stored on a compact disc as about 6 billion binary digits.

In a digital system, a more precise representation of a signal can be obtained by using more binary digits to represent it. While this requires more digital circuits to process the signals, each digit is handled by the same kind of hardware. In an analog system, additional resolution requires fundamental improvements in the linearity and noise characteristics of each step of the signal chain.

Computer-controlled digital systems can be controlled by software, allowing new functions to be added without changing hardware. Often this can be done outside of the factory by updating the product's software. So, the product's design errors can be corrected after the product is in a customer's hands.

Information storage can be easier in digital systems than in analog ones. The noise-immunity of digital systems permits data to be stored and retrieved without degradation. In an analog system, noise from aging and wear degrade the information stored. In a digital system, as long as the total noise is below a certain level, the information can be recovered perfectly.
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Digital or binary logic


Digital or binary logic has fascinated many people over the years. The very idea that a two-valued number system can possibly be the basis for the most powerful and sophisticated computers seems astounding, to say the least. Nevertheless, it is so, and the how and the why of this requires some explanation.

Everything in the digital world is based on the binary number system. Numerically, this involves only two symbols: 0 and 1. Logically, we can use these symbols or we can equate them with others according to the needs of the moment. Thus, when dealing with digital logic, we can specify that:

0 = false = no
1 = true = yes

Using this two-valued logic system, every statement or condition must be either "true" or "false;" it cannot be partly true and partly false. While this approach may seem limited, it actually works quite nicely, and can be expanded to express very complex relationships and interactions among any number of individual conditions.

One essential reason for basing logical operations on the binary number system is that it is easy to design simple, stable electronic circuits that can switch back and forth between two clearly-defined states, with no ambiguity attached. It is also readily possible to design and build circuits that will remain indefinitely in one state unless and until they are deliberately switched to the other state. This makes it possible to construct a machine (the computer) which can remember sequences of events and adjust its behavior accordingly.
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Senin, 17 Januari 2011

Capacitor bank is an equipment used to improve power factor


Capacitor bank is an equipment used to improve power factor, eliminate the interference voltage and reactive power control. But the use of capacitor banks in the world of electricity, which means the operation known as capacitor bank switching can cause new problems in an effort to improve the quality of power, namely the onset of symptoms of high voltage transient (transient overvoltages). In this final project, conducted testing and analysis of transient overvoltages simulation using MATLAB SIMULINK software based data transmission, such as voltage and impedance channels obtained from Waru substation. The test results of simulation with MATLAB SIMULINK shows that the transient overvoltages generated by the operation of the capacitor bank switching on the transmission system substation Waru to achieve the highest value of 1.74 pu at 150 kV transmission system and 2.2 pu at 70 kV transmission system. From the analysis found that the transient overvoltages generated will increase if the voltage level positions closer to the load. This is certainly dangerous because it can damage electrical equipment.

Many say let the electricity bill cheap disposable capacitor bank, but the opinion was not completely wrong or completely right nor because the main function is to maximize tire capacitor power that we have or eliminate the reactive power that we use, because the reactive power charge is PLN (kvarh ) on us, so that with the decrease in reactive power kVA then we only pay a maximum of just making it more and cheaper electricity costs
some things that affect the age capacitor bank

There are two things that affect the capacitor bank

environmental temperature: the higher the labor room temperature the faster the capacitor bank during his lifetime

Harmonics generated: harmonic disturbances that often make life in capacitor banks become increasingly narrow

some equipment that can cause the capacitor bank is rapidly broken
Inverter, DC Drive
UPS or power supply uninteruptable
soft starter
welding machine
rectifier
fluorescent light
arc furnace
laser

by knowing this can we be expected to maximize the use of capacitor banks.

Some problems in the capacitor bank
this incident one of my customers when the capacitor bank exploded, many of us as actors maintenance or engineering are often asked, why capacitor banks explode ..? actually a lot of factors why the capacitor banks could explode following some discussion about the cause - the cause of capacitor banks can explode:

From my observations (CMIIW), many cases of fires at the plant caused by exploding / burning of the capacitor bank.

- I wonder what factors which trigger the explosion / burning of the capacitor bank?

- What are the reply must be considered in the design, installation and maintenance capacitor bank?

- From all electrical maintenance there any specific standards for maintenance?

May exist between rekan2 this mailing list who wish to comment about things they will be on top. Incidentally my background is not electrical. So I do not quite understand how to work and who are in operational hazard capacitor banks.

As short as I know there are several causes of capacitor banks quickly broken:

1. Voltage capacitors, since capacitors are very sensitive to voltage.

2. Room temperature.

3. Working frequency capacitors, whether pairs of capacitors which comply with the frequency mas we can to 50Hz or 50/60Hz (if not sure ask the vendor staement dr letter capacitors).

4. Quality power of the existing system in place mas darma, I often encountered cases are often damaged due to system capacitors containing high harmonics, so that when the capacitor has resonance with the system will occur surge that will damage the capacitor. So also the case I have ever met, the system prior to install capacitor banks no harmonics are significant, but once installed capacitor banks actually harmonics that appear in the system significantly. These harmonics appear due to the non linear load2 such as rectifiers, UPS, battery charge etc..

My suggestion to design a good capacitor bank is enabled as well as harmonic filters, to determine the initial harmonics in the system was measured first by measuring alat2 who have a lot of maintenance store.The capacitor bank room temperature maintained enough is enough.

Please corrected if I am wrong.

Generally, the load on the electricity grid is an inductive load. Some existing inductive loads in electricity network, such as the heater, Neon, electric motor, etc. So the electrical load is mostly inductive load. To eliminate / reduce this inductive power component that is required compensator capacitor / capacitor bank. PLN KVARH charge excess usage on the customer, if the average power factor (cos phi) is less than 0.85. To improve power factor so as not paying fines, should use the Application panel capacitor bank.
The main functions of capacitor bank
capacitor banks eliminate penalty / excess cost (kVARh)
Avoid overloaded transformers
Provide additional resources available
Avoiding the increase of current / temperature on the cable
capacitor bank serves to maximize the power consumption (kVA)
Power saving / efficiency
Avoiding Line Voltage Drop
preserve installation & Electrical Appliances
Capacitor banks are also reducing the losses - other loss on electrical installations

with the increasingly high cost of electricity in Indonesia, the electricity users must be clever - clever maximize its power and make savings so that electricity costs are not to be expensive.

Judging from how it works, capacitor banks are divided into 2:

Fixed capacitor bank type, with a fixed capasitive burden despite load changes. Usually used to direct cost as in the induction motor. A safe value is 5% of motor capacity, consideration is no-load current conditions.

Automatic type, giving capasitive burden that varies according to load conditions. Type panel is equipped with a Power Factor Controller (PFC),Cos phi PFC will maintain the network in accordance with the specified target. For fluctuating loads quickly used the Static Var Compensator type (SVC) using Thyristor as switcher. As for the load fluctuations are not too quick to use Dynamic Var Compensator using Magnetic Contractor and relay as a switcher PFC.
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Jumat, 14 Januari 2011

An audio equalizer


An audio equalizer, also known as a graphic equalizer, is a set of sliders that allows the stereo user to increase or reduce bands of sound that are on frequencies. The result is a more focused sound, with bass and treble specifications to suit the individual listener. The name from graphic equalizer comes from the fact that we can see the audio levels as we are adjusting them. A typical audio equalizer includes a series of filters and amplifiers that are each set to a certain frequency. A typical audio equalizer will have two sets of these levels, one for each channel in the stereo system. Gain controls affect volume, and are typically represented by a button that you slide up or down. Audio equalizers are most frequent in medium- to high-grade stereo systems, and every recording studio worth its salt will have one. You can even find equalizers for your computer sound, or for your car stereo.

Different kinds of media sound differently on various graphic equalizers. For example, a particular device may play music files better than audio on feature films. In addition, be sure to find an audio equalizer that that doesn’t fuzz up or distort the sound, which is a common problem among audio equalizers. Audio equalizers are great for people with an extensive music collection that includes older recordings, such as cassettes and older CDs. Graphic equalizers brighten up the sound.

Another thing to consider when purchasing a graphic equalizer are “sticky buttons,” or buttons or slides that do not move as easily or as intuitively as you would like them to. Sticky buttons can result in the cutting out of sound on certain frequencies, negatively affecting the quality of sound. In addition, once you find the perfect balance among dials and switches, some models do not contain hash marks that allow you to easily remember these things. This can be easily remedied by applying magic marker to the places that you would like to remember.

Below are some examples of top equalizers in the market.

The Samson D2500 Digital Graphic Equalizer has 31 bands of sound and includes a fader, programmable delay, a noise gate, low pass filters, a limiter and an enhancer. There are up to 1010 programmable settings available, and the device includes a three year warranty that includes parts and labor. Samson S Curve 215 Dual 15 Band Equalizer gives the user control over two audio channels. With a range of 12 dB, users can move sliders that are lit up using LED (light emitting diode) technology. Because the equalizer is low-noise, there are a variety of ways this device can be used, including during live performances and studio recordings. At 15 bands, each frequency represents 2/3 an octave with a range of 25 Hz to 16 kHz. Other features include a switchable low-cut filter at 80 Hz. This feature reduces extra noises and movement. In addition, XLR and TRS connectors are electronically balanced, there are options for stereo or the use of two monophonic signals. There is also faders, circuits that prevent thumps, an internal power supply and a useful 19″ rack design. This device also includes a three year warranty, including parts and labor. The Samson S Curve 231 Dual 31 Band Equalizer has a range of 24 dB, but is otherwise very similar to the Samson S Curve 215, except that it has 31 bands of frequency (rather than 15).

The dbx 1215 Dual 15 Band Equalizer offers 15 2/3 octave bands, dual channels, a range of 12 dB and ISO frequency centers. Other features include low-cut filters, gain adjustments, a barrier strip and easy to use connectors. The dbx 231 Dual 31 Band Graphic Equalizer also is a popular choice. Features of this device include two channels of 31 bands that at 2/3 of an octave. The range is from 6 to 12 dB (12sB per octave) and a low-cut filter is 40 Hz. A front panel switch, LED displays and an internal transformer are other features of this device. The four-band Summit Audio FEQ50 Tube and Solid State Equalizer is passive with a range of 14 dB. There are six frequencies per band, a master bypass and a separate bypassable high pass filter. This device comes with a 3-year warranty.
READ MORE - An audio equalizer

The characteristics of electromagnetic waves


Creeping wave is a vibration. Ideal shape of a wave will follow the motion sinusoide. Apart from electromagnetic radiation, and possibly gravitational radiation, which can run through a vacuum, there are also on medium wave (which is due to change in form can produce restoring forces which flexure) where they can walk and can transfer energy from one place to another without causing particle medium migrate permanently, ie no mass displacement. In fact, every special point oscillates around a certain position.

A medium is called:
linear if the waves are different in every particular point in the medium can be summed,
limited, if limited, but it is called infinite
uniform if its physical characteristics do not change at different points
isotropic if the physical characteristics of the "same" in different directions

Electromagnetic waves are waves that can propagate though no medium. Propagate in a wave of electromagnetic energy with a few characters that can be measured, namely: wavelength / wavelength, frequency, amplitude / amplitude, velocity. Amplitude is the height of the wave, while the wavelength is the distance between two peaks. Frequency is the number of waves passing through a point in one unit of time. Frequency depends on the speed of the wave vine. Because the electromagnetic energy is a constant speed (the speed of light), wavelength and frequency is inversely proportional. The longer a wave, the lower the frequency, and the shorter the wave the higher frequencies.

Electromagnetic energy emitted, or released, by all the time in the universe at a level different. Higher levels of energy in an energy source, the lower the wavelength of the energy produced, and the higher frequency. Different characteristics of the wave energy is used to classify electromagnetic energy.

The characteristics of electromagnetic waves:
From the description above can conclude several characteristics of electromagnetic waves is as follows:

1. Changes in the electric field and magnetic field occurs at the same time, so that the two fields have a maximum and minimum prices at the same time and at the same place.

2. The direction of electric field and magnetic field perpendicular to each other and both perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.

3. From the characteristics of No. 2 showed that electromagnetic waves are transverse waves.

4. Like the waves in general, an incident electromagnetic wave reflection, refraction, interference, and diffraction. Also experienced a polarization event because it included a transverse wave.

5. Fast propagation of electromagnetic waves depends only on the electrical properties and the magnetic medium by which this occurred.

Light visible to the eye is not only the type that allows electromagnetic radiation. Opinions James Clerk Maxwell showed that electromagnetic waves other, in contrast to visible light by the eye in his wavelength and frequency, could have been there. These theoretical conclusions were remarkably reinforced by the Heinrich Hertz, who could produce and meet the two waves are visible by eye was predicted by Maxwell. A few years later Guglielmo Marconi demonstrates that the wave of the invisible eye that can be used for communication without wires, so what was his name is radio. Now, we use also for television, x-rays, gamma rays, infrared rays, ultraviolet rays are examples of electromagnetic radiation. Everything can be learned through the ideas of Maxwell.

SOURCE electromagnetic waves
Electrical oscillations.
sunlight produces infrared rays.
mercury lamp produces ultra violet.
The shooting of electrons in vacuum tubes on the metal pieces produce X-rays (used for x-rays).

Unstable nuclei produce gamma rays.

SPECTRUM electromagnetic waves
The composition of all forms of electromagnetic waves based on wavelengths and frequencies called the electromagnetic spectrum. Image of the electromagnetic spectrum below have been prepared on the wavelength (measured in units _m) includes a very low energy range, with wavelengths of high and low frequencies, like radio waves to very high energy, with a low wavelength and high frequency radiation such as X -ray and Gamma Ray.

Examples of the electromagnetic spectrum
Radio waves
Radio waves are classified according to wavelength or frequency. If the wavelength is high, then definitely a low frequency or vice versa. The frequency of radio waves from 30 kHz up and grouped according to broad bands. The radio waves generated by electric charges are accelerated through conductive wires. These charges are generated by electronic circuit called the oscillator. These radio waves emitted from the antenna and received by the antenna as well. You can not hear the radio directly, but the radio receiver will change the first wave energy into sound energy.

Microwaves
Microwaves (mikrowaves) is a radio wave with the highest frequency that is above 3 GHz. If the microwaves are absorbed by an object, it would appear that the warming effect on the body. If the food absorb microwave radiation, then the food becomes hot in a very short time interval. The process is utilized in a microwave oven to cook food quickly and economically.

Microwaves are also used in aircraft RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) RADAR means finding and determine the trace of an object using microwaves. Aircraft radar utilizing the reflection properties of microwaves. Because the velocity of electromagnetic wave c = 3 X 108 m / s, then by observing the time interval between transmitting the reception.


Infrared Rays
Infrared rays covering area up to 1014 Hz 1011Hz frequency or wavelength region 10-4 cm to 10-1 cm. if you check the spectrum produced by an incandescent lamp with a detector which is connected to the miliampermeter, then the needle ampermeter slightly above the tip of the red spectrum. Light rays are not visible but can be detected in the upper red spectrum is called infrared radiation.
Infrared rays produced by electrons in the molecules vibrate as Theys That in heat. So Would any hot objects emit infrared light. The amount of infrared light emitted Depends on temperature and color of objects.

Visible light
Visible light as electromagnetic radiation most familiar to us can be defined as part of the electromagnetic wave spectrum that can be detected by human eye. The wavelength depends on the color looks nervariasi wavelengths ranging from approximately 4 x 10-7 m to light violet (purple) to 7x 10-7 m for a red light. Usefulness of light one of them go round the use of lasers in optical fiber for telecommunications and medical.


Ultraviolet Rays
Ultraviolet light has a frequency of 1015 Hz in the region until 1016 Hz or in a long region wave 10-8 m 10-7 m. these waves are generated by atoms and molecules in electric flame. The sun is a major source that emits ultraviolet rays on the surface of the earth, the ozone layer is in the top layer that serves atmosfer absorb ultraviolet rays and ultraviolet rays forward that does not endanger the lives of living beings on earth.

X-ray
X-rays have a frequency between 10 Hz to 10 Hz. very short wavelength of 10 cm to 10 cm. although such an X-ray but has strong penetrating power, can penetrate thick books, wood several inches thick and 1 cm thick aluminum plate.

Gamma Rays
Gamma rays have a frequency between 10 Hz to 10 Hz or a wavelength of between 10 cm to 10 cm. Greatest penetrating power, which causes serious effects when absorbed by body tissue.

Examples of the application of electromagnetic waves in everyday life:

Radio

Radio energy is the lowest form of electromagnetic energy levels, with a range of wavelengths from thousands of kilometers to less than one meter. The use of most of the communication, to investigate outer space and radar systems. Radar is useful to study the weather patterns, storms, making the 3D map of the earth's surface, measure rainfall, movement of ice in the polar region and monitor the environment. Radar wavelength range between 0.8 - 100 cm.

Microwave

Microwave radiation wavelength range between 0.3 - 300 cm. Its use is mainly in the fields of communication and information delivery through open space, cooking, and PJ system active. In PJ active system, a microwave pulse is fired through a target and its reflection was measured to study the characteristics of the target. As an application example is the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), which measures the microwave radiation emitted from the electromagnetic spectrum Electromagnetic energy of the earth's atmosphere to measure evaporation, water content in clouds and rain intensity.

Infrared

Health conditions can be diagnosed by investigating the infrared emission from the body. Special infrared photo called thermogram is used to detect blood circulation problems, arthritis and cancer. Infrared radiation can also be used in burglar alarms. A thief without his knowledge will impede the light and hide the alarm. Communicate with the TV remote control via infrared radiation generated by the LED (Light Emitting Diode) contained within the unit, so that we can turn on the TV from a distance with a remote control.

d. Ultraviolet
UV light is needed in the assimilation of plants and can kill the germs in the skin.

e. X-ray
X-rays are commonly used in the medical field to photograph the position of the bones in the body especially to determine a broken bone. However, the use of X-rays have to be careful because the network of human cells can be damaged by use of X-rays that are too long.
READ MORE - The characteristics of electromagnetic waves

History of Inventions and Innovations Radio


Radio waves are classified according to wavelength or frequency. If the wavelength is high, then definitely a low frequency or vice versa. The frequency of radio waves from 30 kHz up and grouped according to broad bands. The radio waves generated by electric charges are accelerated through conductive wires. These charges are generated by electronic circuit called the oscillator. These radio waves emitted from the antenna and received by the antenna as well. You can not hear the radio directly, but the radio receiver will change the first wave energy into sound energy.


History of Inventions and Innovations Radio

The history of invention and innovation following the radio I quoted from various sources, including Wikipedia. It feels less afdol when we mengdengarkan radio every day but do not know the origin of the radio itself.

Radio is a technology used for signal transmission and modulation by electromagnetic radiation (electromagnetic waves). This wave passes and travel by air and can also travel through the vacuum of space, because this wave does not require the carrier medium (such as air molecules).

Radio waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation, and is formed when electrically charged objects is modulated (increased frequency) at frequencies contained in the radio frequency (RF) in an electromagnetic spectrum. These radio waves are in the range of 10 hertz (Hz) to several gigahertz (GHz), and electromagnetic radiation moves by way of oscillating electric and magnetic.

Other electromagnetic waves, which have frequencies above the radio waves include gamma rays, X-rays, infrared, ultraviolet, and visible light. When the radio waves transmitted through the cable, the oscillation of electric and magnetic fields are expressed in the form of alternating current and voltage on the cable. This can then be converted into an audio signal or any other that carries information.

Although the word 'radio' is used for matters relating to the receiver of sound waves, but wave transmission is used as the basis of the wave on television, radio, radar and cell phones in general.

Basic theory of electromagnetic wave propagation was first described in 1873 by James Clerk Maxwell in his paper at the Royal Society about the dynamics of electromagnetic field theory (in English: A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field), based on the results of her research work between 1861 and 1865.

In 1878, David E. Hughes was the first to transmit and receive radio waves when he found that the induction balance caused disruption to phone product. He demonstrated his discovery to the Royal Society in 1880 but only say it was just an induction.

Is Heinrich Rudolf Hertz who, between 1886 and 1888, the first time to prove Maxwell's theory through experiment, demonstrating that radio radiation had all the wave properties (now called Hertzian waves), and found that the electromagnetic equations can be formulated into a partial differential equation called the wave equation.

Many of the early use of the maritime radio, for sending telegraphic messages using Morse code between ships and land. One of the early users included the Japanese Navy spy on the Russian fleet at the Battle of Tsushima in 1901. One use of the most memorable was at the time of the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, including communications between operators on a sinking ship and nearby ships, and communication to ground stations to register the saved.

Radio used to channel commands and communications between the Army and Navy on both sides in World War II, Germany uses radio communications for diplomatic messages when the underwater cable is cut by the British. United States convey Fourteen Principal President Woodrow Wilson to Germany via radio during the war.

Press start to be done in the 1920s, with the popularity of radio, especially in Europe and the United States. In addition to the broadcast, broadcast point-to-point, including phone and re-broadcast radio program, became popular in the 1920s and the 1930s.

Role Marconi

World of radio innovation record the names Guglielmo Marconi, the inventor of radio. He was born in Bologna, Italy, April 25, 1874. His father, Giuseppe Marconi authentic Italian farmer and his mother, Annie Jameson is the son of the owner of Daphne Castle in Ireland, who was signed as a British territory. He went to Bologna, Florence, and Leghorn.

Since childhood he was interested in working Maxwell, Hertz, Righi, until the Lodge. In the age of 21 years, 1895, he made a laboratory in his father's house, in Pontecchio. He conducted research about radio waves - when it referred to as "Hertzian Waves" - to send a telegraph signal. It was only through the telegraph wires. He has managed to send a telegraph signal for a distance of about 2 kilometers. Findings radio practically in the doorway so he asked for the support of Post and Telegraph Department of Italian. But the bureaucrats are not interested in Italy, even closing the door for him.

Marconi did not despair, a year later he contacted the British Postal Service. William Preece, chief engineer Postal Service England, Marconi was willing to meet with him and who later came to showcase his creations radio capability on the plains of Salisbury and, later, across the Bristol Channel. Preece was impressed, and eventually founded the company Marconi Wireless Telegraph & Signal The Company Limited in 1897, which later transforms into Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company Limited.

In two years, 1899, he has built a radio between France and Britain, followed later between the U.S. and Britain.

Over a decade until 1912, he patented a number of findings to improve the radio system he created. In 1909 he received the Nobel Prize in physics.

In 1914, Marconi was called into the Italian Army. He became a diplomat Italy to America in 1917.

Once the government no longer part of Italy, he returned to the laboratory. By World War II, in 1935, he demonstrated the latest findings, namely Radar. Two years later, July 20, 1937, Marconi died in Rome.

Role Howard

Edwin Howard Armstrong was recorded as the inventor of FM radio. He was born on December 18, 1890 in New York City. His father was publisher of books and his mother a teacher. At the age of 14 years, Armstrong read a book written by Marconi telegraph. He was very impressed with Marconi, just that he wanted to improve the creation Marconi radio. So Armstrong had intended to make clear-voiced radio while making their own radio station at his home. To that end, Armstrong entered the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at Columbia University. He graduated and became a great teacher and electrical engineer.

In 1912, Armstrong managed to make a regenerative circuit and feedback circuit. He also studied a hollow tube made of De Forest, who named trioda and audion. Later, Armstrong combines its discovery, with a hollow tube made of De Forest. The results of the exit tube sound a thousand times more clear.

Unfortunately, De Forest's invention is considered his property. They fight the copyright, for 14 years in court. Finally, De Forest becomes the winner, because judges do not understand the science of electricity.
But scientists still think Armstrong was the inventor of the circuit and FM radio. He was awarded the Franklin Medal and was nicknamed "Father of Circuit". On February 1, 1954, Armstrong died in New York. He was synchronized with the old inventor, in the field of electricity such as Amphere and Bell.
READ MORE - History of Inventions and Innovations Radio

Radio is a technology used for signal transmission and modulation

Radio is a technology used for signal transmission and modulation by electromagnetic radiation (electromagnetic waves). This wave passes and travel by air and can also travel through the vacuum of space, because this wave does not require the carrier medium (such as air molecules).

Radio waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation, and is formed when electrically charged objects is modulated (increased frequency) at frequencies contained in the radio frequency (RF) in an electromagnetic spectrum, and electromagnetic radiation moves by way of oscillating electric and magnetic.

Other electromagnetic waves, which have frequencies above the radio waves include gamma rays, X-rays, infrared, ultraviolet, and visible light.

When the radio waves transmitted through the cable, the oscillation of electric and magnetic fields are expressed in the form of alternating current and voltage on the cable. This can then be converted into an audio signal or any other that carries information.

Act No. 32 of 2002 on Broadcasting states that radio frequencies are electromagnetic waves used for broadcasting and propagating in air and space without artificial means of Conductor, is a public domain and limited natural resources. Like other electromagnetic spectrum, radio waves propagate with a speed of 300,000 miles per second. It should be noted that different radio waves with audio wave.

Radio waves propagate at a frequency of 100.000 Hz to 100,000,000,000 Hz, while the audio waves propagate at a frequency of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. In radio broadcasting, audio wave is not transmitted directly but superimposed on the radio waves that will propagate through space. There are two methods of transmitting audio, namely through amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM).

Although the word 'radio' is used for matters relating to the receiver of sound waves, but wave transmission is used as the basis of the wave on television, radio, radar, and mobile phones in general.

Pointing to a radio frequency electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by the flow of back and forth to an antenna. Frequencies as part of the spectrum is included below:


absorption of electromagnetic radiation by Earth's atmosphere is so great that the atmosphere effectively become "opaque" to a higher frequency of electromagnetic radiation, until the atmosphere becomes transparent again in the so-called term frequency infrared and optical window.

Band ELF, SLF, Ulf, and VLF spectral overlap with AF, approximately 20 to 20.000 Hz. However, the sound transmitted by atmospheric compression and development, and not by electromagnetic energy.

Electrical Connectors are designed to work on radio frequencies known as the Liaison RF. RF is also the name of connecting audio / video standard, which is also called a BNC (Bayonet Neill-Concelman).
READ MORE - Radio is a technology used for signal transmission and modulation

Kamis, 13 Januari 2011

Cycle Power Plant


A power plant when viewed from raw material to produce it, then Fired Power generators can be said is made raw water. Why not STEAM? Steam power player here only as a turbine, while steam to produce a certain amount of water needed. Interestingly in the power plant there is a continuous process of ongoing and repetitive. The process of water into steam and then steam back into water and so on. This process is a cycle power plant.

Water used in power plant cycle is called Demin Water (Demineralized), ie, water that has levels of conductivity (the ability to conduct electricity) amounted to 0.2 us (micro Siemens). As a comparison of mineral water we drink everyday has a conductivity level of about 100-200 us. To get this demin water, every power plant units are usually equipped with Desalination Plant and demineralization plant which is used to produce this demin water.

In simple terms how to cycle power plant can be seen when the process of cooking water. Initially housed in the cooking water and then given the heat of the fire that burns beneath the axis. As a result of combustion raises the temperature of the water continues to increase until the limit of its boiling point. Because the burning continues, the water that is cooked beyond its boiling point until steam arises. This steam is used to turn turbines and generators that will produce electrical energy.

Cycle Power Plant
First demin water is located in a place called Hotwell.
From Hotwell, water flowing to the Condensate Pump for then pumped into the LP Heater (Low Pressure Heater) that pungsinya to warm the first stage. Location hotwell and condensate pump is located at the base of the plant floor or so-called Ground Floor. Furthermore, the water flow into the Deaerator.
In dearator water will undergo a process of release of mineral ions remaining in the water and not needed, such as Oxygen and others. Can also be said deaerator has puncture to remove bubble / balloon commonly found in surface water. In order for this release process is complete, the water temperature must meet the required temperature. Hence, during the journey to Dearator, water experienced by some process of heating device called LP Heater. Location dearator were upstairs (but not the top). As an illustration in the Muara Karang power plant unit 4, dearator located on the 5th floor of 7 floor available.
From dearator, water fall back into the Ground Floor. Arriving at Ground Floor, water is pumped directly by the Boiler Feed Pump / BFP (water pump filler) to the boiler or place, Äúmemasak, Äù water. You can imagine this like a drum boiler, but a giant-sized drums. The water being pumped is highly pressurized water, because it provided for the steam generated is also high pressure. That's why making dearator power plant construction is on the floor above and the BFP are on the ground floor. Since the launching of water from a height make the water high pressure.
Before entering the boiler to, Äúdirebus, Äù, again amended water heating process at HP Heater (High Pressure Heater). Afterwards, the water enters the boiler is located in the floor above.
In these boilers there cooking process water to produce steam. This process requires a fire which generally use coal as the basic material with the assistance of combustion air from the FD Fan (Force Draft Fan) and lubricants derived from Fuel Oil tank.
The fuel is pumped into the boiler through the Fuel Oil Pump. Power plant fuel manifold. Some use oil, oil and gas or the term dual firing and coal.
While the air produced by Force Draft Fan (FD Fan). FD Fan took the outside air to assist the combustion process in boilers. In perjalananya toward the boiler, the air temperature is increased by the water heater (air heater) for the combustion process can occur in the boiler.
Back to the water cycle. After combustion, the water began to change form into vapor. However steam combustion products has not been feasible to rotate the turbine, because it is still in the form of saturated steam or steam that still contains moisture. The water content is harmful to the turbine, because the rotation up to 3000 rpm, a drop of water able to make turbine blades become eroded.
To remove water content, the saturated vapor in the dry in the super heater so that the steam produced to steam dry. This dry steam is used to turn turbines.
When successful spin turbines spin generators will then be automated spinning, because between the turbine and generator are on one axis. This generator produces electrical energy.
In the generator there is a giant magnetic field. Turnover generator produces a potential difference in these magnets. The potential difference is the embryo of electrical energy.
Electrical energy is delivered to the transformer to change voltage and then distributed through a transmission line PLN.
Dry steam used to turn turbines will fall back to the ground floor. Steam is undergoing a process of condensation within the condenser so that eventually transformed back into the water and enter into hotwell.

Cycle Power Plant is a closed cycle (close cycle) which ideally do not need more water if the conditions are sufficient. But the reality is still needed plenty of water booster every day. This indicates a lot of leaks in water pipes and steam lines in a power plant.

To keep the cycle is still running, then to cover the shortage of water in the cycle due to leakage, hotwell always added water according to the needs of demineralized water from tanks.


Coal Power Plant Working System
1. Clean coal combustion system
The working principle is the coal power plant that will be used / worn burned in the boiler in stages. This is intended to obtain a low firing rate and without reducing the temperature required to obtain low NOx formation. Coal before burning it rolled up to resemble grains of rice, then put into a container (boiler) by spraying, in which the basic shape of the container and a perforated grill frame. Combustion can occur with the help of a blown air from the bottom up and the speed of air inflatable arranged, resulting in grain brick embers carried slightly raised slightly without forming a layer of coal grains are floating. In addition to floating point is also moving coal means it indicates the occurrence of air circulation that will give good effect so that the grain was all burned. Because the coal grains relative has the same size and the distance of adjacent consequently it became a floating layer of heat is good. Because the low temperature combustion process so that the resulting NOx levels to be low, thus this combustion system can reduce the pollutant. When inserted into the boiler furnace lime (Ca) and from the bottom of the furnace the temperature of 750-950 ¼ C air entered the floating layer is formed as a result of burns. On that layer chemical reaction occurs that causes the sulfur bound with lime to produce CaSO4 in the form of dust, so easy to fall with ash. This causes a reduction in emissions to 98% and its ash CaSO4 can be utilized. The advantage of this combustion system is able to use low-quality coal with high sulfur content coal as it is widely available in Indonesia.

2. The process of electrical energy
Burning coal will produce steam and hot exhaust gas. Exhaust gas it serves also to heat the boiler pipe above the floating layer. Flue gas then flowed to the cleaners where there is dust settling after a gas appliance is clean and then thrown into the air through the chimney. While the steam flowing to the turbine which will cause the turbine to move, but because the shaft coupled turbine / generator shaft is coupled with the result that the turbine movement or motion will cause the generator to produce electrical energy. Steam was then fed to a condenser so that turned into water and with the help of water pumps that fed water to the boiler as filler.

Generators are usually large with a total of more than one unit and operated in different ways. While medium-sized generator is designed based on the assumption that during the period of benefit will occur 10,000 times star-stop. Means for a year carried out 250 x star-stop the aging plant can reach 40 years. If the generator power increases, the speed increase as well and when the speed of criticism it is necessary to pass control shaft vibration generator so that did not happen. For the rotor and stator construction and installation of quality needs improvement. Boilernya using natural circulation and produces steam with a pressure of 196.9 kg/cm2 and a temperature of 554 ¼ C. This power plant is equipped with an electro static precipitator is a device for controlling the particle that will come out the chimney and coal ash processing equipment. Who's the steam that is used and then cooled in a condenser so that the produced water that flowed into the boiler. At the time of the coal power plant operates at a condenser temperature rising so fast, resulting in the condenser becomes hot. Moderate to cool the condenser water can be used, but must in large numbers, it is this which causes the power plant was built close to water sources much like the river or the beach.
Efficiency
When the coal power plant kondensornya pressure falls, the power point increases. Usually the condenser pressure are directly related or proportional to the amount of cooling water temperature from the steam in the condenser. So when the temperature is low, then the prisoner was also low and the lowest temperature will be generated / occurred saturated pressure. Because the cooling water is typically consists of water originating from the steam turbine and water comes from the sea and rivers. As a result, the lowest temperature in accordance with the amount of water used to pressure saturated difficult to obtain. Increased efficiency can be done by re-heating and combustion of low quality coal

1. Warming Birthdays
This can be done by dividing the turbine into two parts, high pressure (TT) and the low pressure (TR) located on a single shaft. Thus, this plant has the following composition: Boilers - TT - TR - Generator.
How it works:

Steam from the boiler input / channeled to the TT, setela h steam is used streamed back to the boiler for reheating. Then the steam from the boiler was drained back into the turbine TR to be used as an activator generator. Therefore, the amount of energy that can be utilized as a major usability or efiseinsi result of no decision. From this it can be concluded if the turbine is divided into three parts, namely TT, TM, and TR, the energy obtained is also great, this is usually used on machines with large size.
Increasing temperature (up to 560 ¼ C) and pressures (up to 250 kg/cm2 mancapai) steam power plant would lead to more rapid growth. This is indicated by the increased efficiency and reliability. With the increased power also means the design of the boiler must be repaired is equipped with NOx control equipment, equipment to remove sulfur from flue gases and equipment to prevent a variety of particles out of the chimney. Improved efficiency in coal fired power plant can also be done by increasing the length of the blade. This is because with long blades which means that loss-offs will be reduced.

2. Floating Layer Combustion Pressure
Combustion process using pressurized air or compressed means of heat transfer is increased as a result of steam and exhaust gas temperature also increases. This hot exhaust gas after cleaning can be used to drive gas turbines coupled with generators to produce electrical energy. So the electrical energy in the combustion process is produced by steam and exhaust gas, it is this which causes the combustion efficiency of this increase. Apart from the gas turbine also produces enough hot exhaust gas that can be used to heat water coming out of the steam turbine condenser is then fed into the boiler is gas that has cooled in the exhaust into the air through the chimney. By using a floating layer of pressurized combustion, then the low-quality coal that can be used to become an environmentally friendly electrical energy. q
READ MORE - Cycle Power Plant

Selasa, 11 Januari 2011

Various kinds of mobile phone secret code is the code-code that used to repair mobile

Various kinds of mobile phone secret code is the code-code that used to repair mobile device or in the repair of mobile phones just by pressing the keypad buttons are on the phone that has been damaged, this damage can be quite mild or severe, the repair technique is not require other devices or tools that are commonly used to repair the damaged mobile phone, while the damage is such as: Hang, System Error, Application Error, Phone Lock, Searching, Etc.

ERICSSON

* # 06 # IMEI number
* # 0000 # or <0> Restore menu Bahasa Indonesia
> * <<* <* Version of software <* * * <<* <* NOKIA 3110 Numer IMEI: * # 0 6 # Wersja oprogramowania: * # 0 0 0 0 # lub * # 9999 # Przywraca ustawienia fabryczne: * # 7780 # Info o simlocku (specjalne menu): * # 9 2 7 0 2 6 8 9 # (* # war0anty #) lub * # 3110 # Zatrzymanie zegara karty SIM * # 746025625 # Philips Numer IMEI: * # 0 6 # Info o simlock `u: * # 8 3 7 7 # Security code: * # 1 2 3 4 # (Fizz) Albo * # 7 4 8 9 # Philips DIGA phones: Blocking list * # 3333 * # Time connected * # 2558 * # Flags, something * # 3377 * # Security code * # 7489 * # Fizz Philips phones: IMEI code * # 06 # SW info * # 8377 * # Security code * # 1234 * # Philips SPARK phones: IMEI: * # 06 # Philips GENIE phones: * # 06 # IMEI number * # 2254 * # Status register: C, BS, RR, MMI, Creat. * # 2255 * # activate and deactivate the "DEBUG CALL"-Mode; Pls activated, make a call to a busy line an the phone will from display Some hex-codes on the display * # 2558 * # the time in days, hours and minutes you are connected to the net * # 2562 * # not clear; the phone reconnects to the net * # 2565 * # not clear; warmstart * # 3333 * # (NO) BLOCKING - list (15 items) * # 2377 * # "BEER": not clear, the phone waits a random time and reconnects to the net * # 3377 * # Init, Flags, SIM LCk * # 3353 * # resets the (NO) BLOCKING - list * # 7378 * # Name, Length, SIM phase * # 7489 * # SECURITY CODE * # 7693 * # activate and deactivate the SLEEP MODE (Pls deactivated the battery will of go down!) * # 7787 * # spurious interrupt * # 7948 * # SWITCH OFF * # 8463 * # Some information about the SLEEP MODE: Wake, Sleep Req., Sleep SAMSUNG SGH-600 SECRET CODES * # 06 # -> Show IMEI
* # 9999 # -> Show Software Version
* # 0001 # -> Show Serial Parameters
* 2767 * 3855 # -> Full EEPROM Reset (THIS CODE REMOVES SP-LOCK!! But change IMEI to 447967-89-400044-0 Also, you must use CHGIMEI to restore it)
* 2767 * 2878 # -> Custom EEEPROM Reset
* # 9998 * 228 # -> Battery status (capacity, voltage, temperature)
* # 9998 * 246 # -> Program status
* # 9998 * 289 # -> Change Alarm Buzzer Frequency
* # 9998 * 324 # -> Debug screens
* # 9998 * 364 # -> Watchdog
* # 9998 * 377 # -> EEPROM Error Stack
* # 9998 * 427 # -> Trace Watchdog
* # 9998 * 523 # -> Change LCD contrast
* # 9998 * 544 # -> Jig detect
* # 9998 * 636 # -> Memory status
* # 9998 * 746 # -> SIM File Size
* # 9998 * 778 # -> SIM Service Table
* # 9998 * 785 # -> RTK (Run Time Kernel) errors
* # 9998 * 786 # -> Run, Last UP, Last DOWN
* # 9998 * 837 # -> Software Version
* # 9998 * 842 # -> Test Vibrator
* # 9998 * 862 # -> Vocoder Reg
* # 9998 * 872 # -> Diag
* # 9998 * 947 # -> Reset On Fatal Error
* # 9998 * 999 # -> Last / CHK
* # 9998 * 9266 # -> Yann debug screen (= Debug Screens?)
* # 9998 * 9999 # -> Software version
* 0001 * s * f * t # -> Changes serial parameters (s =?, F = 0.1, t = 0,1) (incomplete)
* 0002 *? # -> Unknown
* 0003 *? # -> Unknown

All CDMA codes ...................

Here i post many codes for cdma phones ..............................

Samsung SPH-n240, n400, A460, A500, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: # # SPC
Test Mode: 47 * 869 # 1235
Debug Menu: # # 33 284, ok
Service Menu: Menu +8 +0 (# 889)
Reset (Life time, Clear Memory, etc): # # 786, ok
A-key: # # 2539, ok
Label Selection: # # 3882, ok
Label (Home, Work, etc): ** 523, ok
NGG Setting (Gateway, etc..): # # 2769737, ok
Vocoder: # # 8626337, ok
CAI Change: # # 7738, ok
Enable TTY: # # 889, ok

Samsung sch-411, 611, n105, A100, A300, a2000, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: 47 * 869 # 08 # 9
Nam Set: Menu +60
Test Mode: * 759 # 813 580
Test Mode: 5809540 * 45 680
A-key: Menu +0, 25 # #
External Audio: Menu +0, # # # #
Debug Menu: Menu +8, 0415 or SPC
Debug Menu: Menu +9, 0415 or SPC
Brief NAM Programing: Menu +40.626 (not all version)
LCD Contrast: Menu +45 (not all version)
SIO Mode: Menu +49
SIO Mode: Menu +69


Samsung A300, a530, a610, a620, A660, a670, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: Menu, 6, *
Service Menu: Menu, 9, *
Test Mode: 47 * 68 # 13580

Samsung X, E, V, S-series (korean), E250, v420, s250, etc Nam Programming:


Nam Set: 6548 # 0 ** 4 # 6
Nam Set: 47 * 869 # 08 # 9
Nam Set: 74153697193
Test Mode: 5809540 * 45 680 (88 - EFS clear)
Debug Menu: Menu (hold 2sec) +0, 6725 or 9720 or 1973 or 0415
Debug Menu: Menu +0 (hold 2sec), 6725 or 9720 or 1973 or 0415



Samsung N356 (India version) Nam Programming:


Test Mode: Menu, 5, down arrow, *
Test Mode: ** 00 # # (in Some flashes)

Samsung i700, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: Go to start and select "PHONE" from the drop down menu, dial # 83 587


Samsung i300, etc Nam Programming:


1. Tap on the Phone Icon with stylus
2. Press # 907 * 9 # 0 ENTER LOCK Should Appear on Screen
3. Enter OTKSL
4. SVC MENU will from a press Appear
5. Enter 10 digit MIN and then press SAVE
6. Press SAVE again
7. Press 3 and then press SAVE 6 times
8. Enter the HOME SID and press SAVE once
9. Press END key twice


TEST MODE Commands:

n105_test_mode.txt
a500_test_mode.txt
a530_test_mode.txt


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Qualcomm QCP-800 Nam Pogramming:

Nam Set: Menu +0 + +3 SPC
Field Test: Menu +7 +0 + FSC


Kyocera 1135, 2255, 3035, 5135, 6035, Se47, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: 111111 + Jog Dial (Ok), Select "Programming" + SPC
CAI Change: # # 7738, ok
Enable TTY: # # 889, ok
Life Timer, PRL, etc: # # 786, ok
A-key: # # 2539, ok
A-key: 2539, ok


Tips:

On Some Kyocera handsets the factory service module has not been disabled and the phone cans be programmed without the spc by inputting.

Nam Set: # # 333333 menu (service)


SANYO>>

Sanyo 4900, 5150, 5300, 8100, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: # # SPC + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Advanced Setup: # # 3282 + Ok + Key Down + Ok + MSL
A-key: # # 2539 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Version: # # ** 837 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Debug Menu: # # FSC + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Airtime menu: # # 8463 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Change CAI: # # 7738 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Vocoder: # # 8626337 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Reverse Logistic: # # 786 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Set IP Address: # # 2769737 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
TTY On / Off: # # 889 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Ready Link: # # 4636 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Browser Init On / Off: # # 4682 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Picture Token: # # 25 327 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
Unknown Code: # # 5282277 + Ok + Key Down + Ok
(SPC = 000000, FSC = 040 793)


Sanyo scp-A011, smp-A017, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: F9 (3 beep) + 0 * 72696 # 767


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Nokia 3280, 3285, 3580, 3585, 5185, 6185, 8280, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: * 3001 # 12345 #
Software Version: * # 837 #
Software Version: * # 9999 #
ESN Number: * # 92772689 #
Restart Phone: * # 75681 #
Restart Phone: * # 75682 #


Nokia 8887 Nam Programming:

Nam Set: * 3001 # 12345 #
Version: * # 0000 #
Evrc: * # 8378 #
ESN / Data / Timer: * # 92772689 #
SID: * # 743 #


Nokia 8587 Nam Programming:

Nam Set: * # 626 # 7764726 #
A-Key: # 8159357022 # 4579 # (26 digits)
A-Key: # 8159357022 # 4547 # (20 digits)
Version: * # 0000 #
Version: * # 837 #
Vocoder: * # 3872 #
Change language: Menu 5, 3, 1
Change DM mode: * # 7678 #
Debug Screen: * # 8378 #
Debug: * # 8380 #
Field Test Menu: * # 83788 #
SPC Unlock, Factory Reset:
Full Factory Reset: * # 7370 #
Resets all settings Changeable Including non-user items (like SPC)


NOKIA TEST MODE:

51xx, 61xx, 71xx, 3285, 63xx, etc:

1) Turn on the phone. Press * 3001 # 12345 #
2) Scroll up to Nowhere it says "Field Test" and choose SELECT
3) Highlight "Enable" and choose OK. Turn the phone off then back on.
4) If the test mode screen does not show up press MENU and scroll down to "Field Test" choose SELECT. Press 0 1 then choose OK.

5) Lower left or upper left number is the signal strength.
6) To turn off the test mode press MENU and scroll down to Nowhere it says "Field Test" choose SELECT. Press 0 0 and then choose OK.


3360, 6360:

1) Turn on the phone. Press * 3001 # 12345 #
2) Scroll up to Nowhere it says "Field Test" and choose SELECT
3) Highlight "Enable" and choose OK. Turn the phone off then back on.
4) If the test mode screen does not show up press MENU and scroll down to "Field Test" choose SELECT. Press 2 1 0 1 then choose OK.
5) Lower left or upper left number is the signal strength.
6) To turn off the test mode press MENU and scroll down to Nowhere it says "Field Test" choose SELECT. Press 2 1 0 0 and then choose OK.

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Audiovox 4000, 9000, 9100, 9155, 9500, etc Nam Programming:

(Power the phone on and Wait Until the little light on top goes out)
Nam Set: 289 + FCN + # +1
Service menu: FCN +00 + FSC (000000)
Test Mode: Hold (2, *, RCL) + Power

Test Mode Commands:


99 - download - flash phone
124 - inam data write
125 - version
126 - ESN read
127 - sec_code
128 - lock_code
129 - is WFTV data write
137 - FSC code
138 - NPcode (nam program code)
139 - dscode
141 - restart
218 - Read_Addr
000 - is cdma mode
001 - is fm mode
002 - is pcs mode
008 - is reg read addr
020 - is lna_range


Audiovox PCX-3500xl Nam Programming:

Nam Set: # # 2726 + Send +1998 +1 +1 + SPC


Audiovox cdm-100, 130, 135, 8300, 8500, 8600, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: # # 20022002 + Pwr +1 + SPC


Audiovox 8610, 8910, etc Nam programming:

Name Set: # # 847446, end, 111 111

Audiovox-107 Nam Programming:

Nam Set: 45680 * 47 * 869 # 1


Audiovox CMP-3 Nam Programming:

Nam Set: 45680 * 47 * 869 # 1
Dm Mode: Menu, 6, 6


Audiovox 9950 Nam Programming:

Nam Set: # # 3282


Audiovox Z800 (Audiovox 7900, Sharp) Nam Programming:

Nam Set: m + # + envelope key + * + 1


Audiovox Thera (Toshiba 2032) Nam Programming:

Thera Nam Programming User Manual - nam_thera.pdf

AUDIOVOX TEST MODE:

9100, 9155:

1) Turn on the phone. As soon the phone comes on and the green light turns off press RIGHTARROW, 0, 0. The phone will from ask for the "FSC Code", press 000000 then choose OK and press RIGHTARROW, RIGHTARROW. Your phone is now in test mode.
2) The signal strength is the number on the top right hand side of the screen.
3) To turn off test mode shut of the phone and then turn it back on.

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Motorola 7760, 7860, 2260, 8160, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: FCN, 0000000000000, RCL
Nam Set: 74663 #, FCN, FCN
Test Mode: FCN, 00 ** 83786633, Sto


Motorola v60c, v120c etc Nam Programming:


Nam Set: 74663 #, Menu, Menu, SPC
Nam Set: Menu, 073887, * (type Quickly)
Test Mode: Menu, 073887 *, SPC
Debug Mode: # # 33 284

Force the phone into DIGITAL ONLY mode:

1) # # 33284 (Debug)
2) RIGHT Softkey (Next) Twice
3) Down arrow 10 times to "PrefMod"
4) RIGHT Softkey (Change) Until you see "DigOnly"
5) LEFT softkey (Exit)
6) MENU then LEFT Softkey return to idle screen
7) # # 33284 (The last four will of the display if you have not done it Correctly)


Motorola t182, C210, etc Nam Programming:


Nam Set: # # 1111 end
Nam Set: # # 298645665 end
Short Nam: # # 073887 sto


Motorola v710, v730, v740, ms150, etc Nam Programming:


Nam Set: 8378 * # + press 3 times Nate (spc - 071082)
Test Mode: Menu, 073887 *, SPC
Service Menu: # 758353266 # 646 #


Motorola StarTac 2004 Nam Programming:

Nam Set: 5759789 * #, rec key (3) times (spc - 915037)


Motorola ms200, ms230, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: 5759789 * # (spc - 915037)


Motorola v6060 Nam Programming:

Nam Set: 147 * 369 # 456 * 0 #


MOTOROLA TEST MODE:

V60, C120, c331, etc:

1) Turn on the phone. Press MENU 0 7 3 8 8 7 *
2) The phone will from require you to "Enter a Security Code", press 000000, OK
3) Scroll down to "Test mode" choose SELECT. Scroll down to "Enable" choose SELECT. Your phone is now in test mode.
4) Signal strength is the 3_rd number down on the left hand side of the screen.
5) To toggle Between regular mode and test mode: Press MODE then press the BUTTON Quickly Directly to the LEFT OF MENU.
6) To turn off the test mode the phone must be in regular mode, then follow the above sequence and scroll down to Nowhere it says "DISABLE" instead of "ENABLE" and choose select.



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LGC-300, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: Menu, 9, SPC
A-key: Press "Sto" 3sec, 2539 **

LGC-330w, etc Nam Programming:

Nam Set: Menu, 4, 0, SPC
A-key: 2539 **
READ MORE - Various kinds of mobile phone secret code is the code-code that used to repair mobile

power ampli car audio


power ampli car audio, auto radio, mobile audio, 12-volt and other terms are used to describe the sound or video system fitted in an automobile. While 12-volt audio and video systems are also used, marketed, or manufactured for marine, aviation, and buses, this article focuses on cars as the most common application. From the earliest days of radio, enthusiasts had adapted domestic equipment to use in their cars. In the 1960s, tape players using reel to reel equipment, Compact Cassettes, and then 8-track cartridges were introduced for in-car use.

A stock car audio system refers to the OEM application that the vehicle's manufacturer specified to be installed when the car was built. A large after market industry exists where the consumer can at their desire replace many or all components of the stock system. In modern cars, the primary control device for an audio system is commonly referred to as a head unit, and is installed in the center of the dash panel between the driver and the passenger. In older vehicles that had audio components as an option, such devices were mounted externally to the top of or underneath the dash. Car speakers often use space-saving designs such as mounting a tweeter directly over a woofer or using non-circular cone shapes. Subwoofers are a specific type of loudspeaker for low frequency reproduction. Extremely loud sound systems in automobiles, which have been nicknamed "boom cars", may violate the noise ordinance of some municipalities.

Motorcycles have been utilized with similar equipment since they also have the so-called "car audio" experience. Even pedal bicycles, as well as homemade boomboxes have utilized sealed lead-acid batteries (or 12V power supplies) for applications outside of motor vehicle use, likewise the store displays which mount in demo models prior to aftermarket purchases for installation.

The audio amplifier was invented in 1909 by Lee De Forest when he invented the triode vacuum tube. The triode was a three terminal device with a control grid that can modulate the flow of electrons from the filament to the plate. The triode vacuum amplifier was used to make the first AM radio.

Early audio amplifiers were based on vacuum tubes (also known as valves), and some of these achieved notably high quality (e.g., the Williamson amplifier of 1947-9). Most modern audio amplifiers are based on solid state devices (transistors such as BJTs, FETs and MOSFETs), but there are still some who prefer tube-based amplifiers, due to a perceived 'warmer' valve sound. Audio amplifiers based on transistors became practical with the wide availability of inexpensive transistors in the late 1960s.

Historically, the majority of commercial audio preamplifiers made had complex filter circuits for equalization and tone adjustment, due to the far from ideal quality of recordings, playback technology, and speakers of the day.

Using today's high quality (often digital) source material, speakers, etc., such filter circuits are usually not needed. Audiophiles generally agree that filter circuits are to be avoided wherever possible. Today's audiophile amplifiers do not have tone controls or filters.

Since modern digital devices, including CD and DVD players, radio receivers and tape decks already provide a "flat" signal at line level, the preamp. is not needed other than as volume control. One alternative to a separate preamp is to simply use passive volume and switching controls, sometimes integrated into a power amp to form an "integrated" amplifier.
READ MORE - power ampli car audio

Auto radio mobile audio


Auto radio mobile audio, 12-volt and other terms are used to describe the sound or video system fitted in an automobile. While 12-volt audio and video systems are also used, marketed, or manufactured for marine, aviation, and buses, this article focuses on cars as the most common application. From the earliest days of radio, enthusiasts had adapted domestic equipment to use in their cars. In the 1960s, tape players using reel to reel equipment, Compact Cassettes, and then 8-track cartridges were introduced for in-car use.

A stock car audio system refers to the OEM application that the vehicle's manufacturer specified to be installed when the car was built. A large after market industry exists where the consumer can at their desire replace many or all components of the stock system. In modern cars, the primary control device for an audio system is commonly referred to as a head unit, and is installed in the center of the dash panel between the driver and the passenger. In older vehicles that had audio components as an option, such devices were mounted externally to the top of or underneath the dash. Car speakers often use space-saving designs such as mounting a tweeter directly over a woofer or using non-circular cone shapes. Subwoofers are a specific type of loudspeaker for low frequency reproduction. Extremely loud sound systems in automobiles, which have been nicknamed "boom cars", may violate the noise ordinance of some municipalities.

Motorcycles have been utilized with similar equipment since they also have the so-called "car audio" experience. Even pedal bicycles, as well as homemade boom boxes have utilized sealed lead-acid batteries (or 12V power supplies) for applications outside of motor vehicle use, likewise the store displays which mount in demo models prior to aftermarket purchases for installation.

The audio amplifier was invented in 1909 by Lee De Forest when he invented the triode vacuum tube. The triode was a three terminal device with a control grid that can modulate the flow of electrons from the filament to the plate. The triode vacuum amplifier was used to make the first AM radio.

Early audio amplifiers were based on vacuum tubes (also known as valves), and some of these achieved notably high quality (e.g., the Williamson amplifier of 1947-9). Most modern audio amplifiers are based on solid state devices (transistors such as BJTs, FETs and MOSFETs), but there are still some who prefer tube-based amplifiers, due to a perceived 'warmer' valve sound. Audio amplifiers based on transistors became practical with the wide availability of inexpensive transistors in the late 1960s.

Historically, the majority of commercial audio preamplifiers made had complex filter circuits for equalization and tone adjustment, due to the far from ideal quality of recordings, playback technology, and speakers of the day.

Using today's high quality (often digital) source material, speakers, etc., such filter circuits are usually not needed. Audiophiles generally agree that filter circuits are to be avoided wherever possible. Today's audiophile amplifiers do not have tone controls or filters.

Since modern digital devices, including CD and DVD players, radio receivers and tape decks already provide a "flat" signal at line level, the preamp. is not needed other than as volume control. One alternative to a separate preamp is to simply use passive volume and switching controls, sometimes integrated into a power amp to form an "integrated" amplifier.
READ MORE - Auto radio mobile audio

Surround replay systems


Parts List:R1-2-7-8-12-13-18-19-20=47Kohm
R3-4-5-6-21-22-34-35=10Kohm
R9-10-11-14-15-16-17=15Kohm
R=23-24-25-33-36=100ohm
R26-27-28-31-32=100Kohm
R29-30=5.6Kohm
C1-8=47uF 25V
C2-7-9-14-23=47nF 100V
C3-6=1uF 100V
C4-5-10=33pF 100V C11-12-15=10uF 25V
C13=82nF
C16=18pF 100V
C17=100pF mini adjustable capacitor
C18=2.2nF
C19=4.7uF 25V
C20=100nF 100V
C21=10nF
C22=180pF
C24=150nF RV1-RV2=2X10Kohm Log. pot.
RV3-4=10K Log pot.
D1=1N4148
IC1-6=TL072
IC2-3=TL074
IC4=MN3101
IC5=MN3004
JI…..J6=RCA female jack


Surround sound encompasses a range of techniques for enriching the sound reproduction quality of an audio source with audio channels reproduced via additional, discrete speakers. Surround sound is characterized by a listener location or sweet spot where the audio effects work best, and presents a fixed or forward perspective of the sound field to the listener at this location. There are other non surround based formats. The three-dimensional (3D) sphere of human hearing can be virtually achieved with audio channels that surround the listener. To that end, the multichannel surround sound application encircles the audience with surround channels (left-surround, right-surround, back-surround), as opposed to "screen channels" (center, [front] left, and [front] right), i.e. ca. 360° horizontal plane (2D).

Surround sound is created in several ways. The first and simplest method is using a surround sound recording microphone technique, and/or mixing-in surround sound for playback on an audio system using speakers encircling the listener to play audio from different directions. A second approach is processing the audio with psychoacoustic sound localization methods to simulate a two-dimensional (2-D) sound field with headphones. A third approach, based on Huygens' principle, attempts reconstructing the recorded sound field wave fronts within the listening space; an "audio hologram" form. One form, wave field synthesis (WFS), produces a sound field with an even error field over the entire area. Commercial WFS systems, currently marketed by companies sonic emotion and Iosono, require many loudspeakers and significant computing power.

The Ambisonics form, also based on Huygens' principle, gives an exact sound reconstruction at the central point; less accurate away from center point. There are many free and commercial software available for Ambisonics, which dominates most of the consumer market, especially musicians using electronic and computer music. Moreover, Ambisonics products are the standard in surround sound hardware sold by Meridian Audio, Ltd. In its simplest form, Ambisonics consumes few resources, however this is not true for recent developments, such as Near Field Compensated Higher Order Ambisonics.

Surround replay systems may make use of bass management, the fundamental principle of which is that bass content in the incoming signal, irrespective of channel, should be directed only to loudspeakers capable of handling it, whether the latter are the main system loudspeakers or one or more special low-frequency speakers called subwoofers.

There is a notation difference before and after the bass management system. Before the bass management system there is a Low Frequency Effects (LFE) channel. After the bass management system there is a subwoofer signal. A common misunderstanding is the belief that the LFE channel is the "subwoofer channel". The bass management system may direct bass to one or more subwoofers (if present) from any channel, not just from the LFE channel. Also, if there is no subwoofer speaker present then the bass management system can direct the LFE channel to one or more of the main speakers.
READ MORE - Surround replay systems

20W Power Tube Amplifier


This project is finalized, that means it is no longer experimental. This amplifier, altough limited in output power (20W), has been designed to give the best listening pleasure. No compromise has been made during components choice: the 845 output triode is one of the best tube available today in that range of power for single-ended applications, the driver stage uses a 300B, a long revered audio tube (note that you must use a WE 300B or a Sovtek 300B). This technical choice has been made in some commercial (like Marantz T1) or amateur realisations and can be questionnable since the 300B is itself difficult to drive. Nevertheless, the exceptional transparancy of the 845 makes the driver stage proeminent in global tonality and thus must be of the highest possible quality: that explains why we'll still use the 300B for that purpose. Using an interstage transformer allows a sufficient gain and a good impedance matching with the 845 grid, (it must be noticed, however, that a good interstage transformer is as complex to construct as an output transformer and costs about the same price). In that configuration, the input stage needs only to provide a low excursion (18Vrms). Input and driver tubes are biased by a cathode resistor while the ouput tube has fixed biais (by increasing its plate voltage, it is possible to use automatic biasing: take 1155 V and a cathode resistor of about 2k4).

Tube sockets are ceramice with gold plated pins. Power supply uses only polypropylen capacitors (special order) after the filter chokes and filaments are DC heated.


Evolution 1

In this version of the 845 amplifier, the input stage is modified in order to suppress the global feedback loop. The two parts of the 6sl7 tube are wired in a local feedback configuration, with a small amount of positive feedback. The schema has been used on many preamplifiers and amplifiers in the 50s-60s, and is well suited for our application. Its distorsion is less than that of the whole driver+power chain. The 300B is now capacitively coupled, for DC matching and for allowing a lowering in plate voltage, which in turn makes a multifilar interstage transformer possible (BP of 300khz!).


Evolution 2 ("Erato")

In this variation on the same output tube, all feedback, either global or local is suppressed. The 6sl7 is no longer suited as an input tube and a directly heated triode must be used. The choice has been made to use the 45, a very good medium power triode, still available as NOS. The interstage transformer between the 300B and the 845 has now a double output impedance, while a second interstage transformer is used for coupling the 45 and the 300B. Here again a multifilar winding is possible (and recommended!). More difficult to tune than the Evolution 1, the filament of the 45 must be DC regulated (NiCd batteries can be used). There is a gap in listening performance between that version and base amplifier, but it is much more expensive.
READ MORE - 20W Power Tube Amplifier