Selasa, 07 Juni 2011

Electronic Components

Electronic Components
Diodes can only energized the DC direction only, in the opposite direction of the DC current will not flow. If the silicon diode is energized AC currents of electricity, then that flows only in one direction only so that the flow of DC current output diode.

When the anode potential given the positive and negative cathode, said diode be forward biased and if the contrary, is said to be a reverse biased diode. At forward bias, the difference in voltage between the cathode and the anode is called the threshold voltage or the knee voltage. Large voltage depends on the type of diode, can be 0.2V, 0.6V and so forth.

When the diodes are reverse biased (which vary depending on supply voltage voltagenya) voltage is called voltage is reversed. This reverse voltage should not exceed a certain price, this price is called the breakdown voltage, such as type 1N4001 diode sebasar 50V.

Germanium diode types such as type 1N4148 or 1N60 when given forward bias to continue the radio-frequency vibrations and when forward bias is removed, will block the radio-frequency vibrations. The existence of these properties, diode types are used to switch.

Zener Diode is a diode which has the properties that the reversal is very stable voltage, this voltage is called the zener voltage. On top of the zener voltage, this diode will deliver electricity in two directions. Diodes are used as a voltage stabilizer or voltage regulator. These diodes form like ordinary diode, the difference can be seen only from the type written on body and zener voltage seen at vademicum.
Resistors

In the market there are various types of resistors, can be classified into two types namely fixed resistor is the resistor value fixed and there are prisoners who can set by hand, there is also a change in the value of prisoners is set automatically by light or by temperature.

Resistor color codes are usually written in the form of circle roundabout or can be color bracelet. The units used are OHM (Ω). Unless the amount of resistance, a resistor marked by tolerance, also written in the form of bracelet colors after signs of resistance.

The next parameter is the magnitude of resistors the maximum power allowed to pass through. Regarding the maximum power is not supplied by the manufacturer's mark but only seen from dimension only. Resistors anyone has the ability of 1 / 8 Watt, 1 / 4 Watt, 1 / 2 Watt, 1 Watt, 2 Watt, 5 Watt and so forth.

The color code for tolerance is as follows:

1 percent = Chocolate
2 percent = Red
5 percent = Gold
10 percent = Silver

Material can be used coil resistor wire resistance or can be with carbon. With the coil wire resistance, then unless the resistance, inductance will also give you a little. At this time the use of carbon resistors are not widely available in the market.

Variable Resistor (VR)

This type of resistor value can be set by hand, if arrangements can be made at any time by the operator (there is a key regulator) is called a potentiometer, and if the arrangements made with a screwdriver called a trimmer potentiometer (trimpot). Prisoners in the potentiometers can be made from carbon material and is also made from a coil of wire called a potentiometer wirewound. For use on high voltage usually preferred wirewound types.

Sensitive Resistor Temperature and Light Sensitive Resistor

Thermistor resistance value depends on the temperature. There are two types of NTC (negative temperature coefficient) and PTC (positive temperature coefficient). NTC little resistance when hot and cold getting bigger. Conversely PTC little resistance when cold and enlarged when hot.

There is another resistor of another type is LDR (Light Depending Resistors) that the resistance value depends on the light / light.

Capacitor (Capacitor)

Capacitors can store electrical charges, to continue the alternating voltage (AC) but hold DC voltage, the magnitude of the size of its power is expressed in farads (F).

In radio, a capacitor is used for:

1. Storing electric charge
2. Set frequency
3. As the filter
4. As the coupling devices (junction)

Various types of capacitors used on the radio, anyone has positive and negative poles is called polar. Some are not having pole, commonly referred to non-polar. Electrolytic condenser or condenser elco and tantalum is polar. Condenser with solid dialectric usually non-polar, such as ceramic, mylar, silver mica, MKS (polysterene), MKP (polypropylene), MKC (polycarbonate), MKT (polythereftalate) and MKL (cellulose acetate).

Besides the value of capacitance, capacitors have voltage limits (Work Voltage), is the maximum allowed voltage. Writing massive capacitance capacitors typically use three-digit code number with units of pF, whereas in elco decimal digits.

Capacitor capacitance value is influenced by temperature, among the various types of capacitors that have been mentioned above, the type of mica or silver mica is the most resistant to temperature changes.

Variable Capacitors (Varco)

This type of condenser capacitance value can be set by hand, if arrangements can be made at any time by the operator (there is a key regulator) is called Variable Capacitors (Varco) and if the arrangements made with a screwdriver called trimmer capacitors.

Coil (Coil)

Coil is a coil of wire over a core. Depending on needs, which are widely used in radio is the air core and ferrite core. Coil is also called the inductor, its inductance value is expressed in magnitude Henry (H).

In radio, the coil is used:

1. As the coil damping
2. As the frequency regulator
3. As the filter
4. As the coupling devices (junction)

Variable Coil

Coil is a coil with an inductance variable that can be changed, the changes made by rotating the position of ferrite core. Such coils are widely used in oscillators for frequency to set, coil shape is similar to the IF transformer.

Transformers (Transformers)

The transformer is two coils are wrapped around a single core, iron core or core could ferrite core. He can continue the AC power and can not be for use in DC. The first coil is called the primary coil that receives the input, the second coil is called the secondary coil which produces the output. In radio, the transformer is used:

1. Changing the voltage (Called Power Transformer)
2. As the coupling

Power Transformer

Primary and secondary coils can be rolled up separately or can also be rolled composite. Primary and secondary coils can stand alone or can become one is called autotrafo. Transformer coils are given in the middle, called TAP-called transformer center tap.

Transformer Coupling

Transformer coupling is used to continue the AC power accompanied by changes in impedance. We know that the roll of wire at a certain core, when the number of different reel, likely will give a different impedance.

Just as the power transformer, primary and secondary can be rolled up separately or can also be rolled composite. A transformer with a tap when the roll before and after the tap tap symetris called a bifilar, when given two taps called trifilar.

How transformer bifilar winding is done by stacking two-wire and rolled together, then both ends are connected back (soldered). The connection is made such that the two rolls before and after the tap has a roll of the same direction. Similarly to trifilar, conducted by stacking three wire.

Crystal

In radio, crystals are widely used in high frequency generator (oscillator) for frequency oscillator can be maintained stable, in addition to a stable frequency, a crystal oscillator has a very narrow bandwidth. Crystals used in aircraft radio is mostly a piece of quartz crystal pieces. Resonant frequency depends on the thickness of the pieces, for example for a 7 MHz thickness of about 0.9 MM.

As we all know that a quartz crystal to provide the piezoelectric effect. Other piezoelectric material which is or the name of Rochelle Salt Potassium Sodium tartrate chemical properties, such crystals are mostly used for microphone or headphones to speakers.

To create a crystal with a high frequency (above 20 MHz) is rather difficult to make accurate thickness. Usually used for high frequency crystal with a frequency below, then the oscillator is given filter to produce output harmonic. Crystals that work according to the thickness of the pieces on crystal frequency called the fundamental crystal and crystal work 3 or 5 time called overtones.

Besides its use as an oscillator, microphone and speakers, the crystal is also used as a filter. Crystal filter consists of a series of ladder crystal filter or a series of lattice filters, crystal filters specifically designed to have three legs.

Ceramic Filter

For the purposes of filters that do not require a narrow bandwidth (not to SSB filter), use ceramic filter. Ceramic filters used in radio for the IF filter.

Ceramic filter is actually also have the ability as an oscillator or SSB filter, but the author does not recommend to use it as a SSB filter therefore a very wide bandwidth, far exceeding the permitted bandwidth in radio regulation.

Reley is an electrically driven switches, the radio transceiver is used to move electricity flow from the receiver to the transmitter and move antenna from receive to transmit.

Microphone

Various types of microphones used in the transceiver, but that are widely used dynamic condensor mic and mic or electret condensor mic (ECM). Another microphone type is a carbon crystal mic and mic.

Speaker

The speakers on the radio is used to convert electricity from vibration detector into sound vibrations. The speakers have a magnet and a coil which can move freely. Coil is connected with a membrane audio. When the coil is traversed by AC current audio, will be moving and thrilling audio membrane.

Coaxial Cable

To connect the transmitter to the antenna can be used twin lead or coaxial cable, coaxial cable but is more known for being easy to work on it and there are many on the market. An important parameter of a coaxial cable is its impedance, expressed in units of OHM.

In the coaxial cable has two conductors, one being in the middle called inner conductor and the other envelop the middle was called the outer, outer is connected to ground.

Yag Coaxial cable is widely available in the market known as the serial number RG8 / U with the outside diameter of 10.3 MM and RG58A / U with outer diameter 5 MM, respectively have impedance 50 OHM. Radio Active Components

Next will be introduced some active components which are widely used in radio, that component is generally a semiconductor component. Component called a semiconductor because the main ingredient for making the semiconductor material, is of a material that can be conductor but it may be insulators.

With the developments in the field of materials science (materials science), which rapidly so that the discovery of semiconductor materials such as silicon, germanium, etc. as well as knowledge about its properties, giving a new era for the development of radio communications equipment.

Radio technology with electron tubes, little by little abandoned and replaced with semiconductor components are smaller, lighter and more energy efficient. Materials science continues to grow rapidly and become increasingly smaller electronic components with greater capabilities.

The development of materials technology as now integrated with the development of rocketry technologies provide opportunities sped developments in the field of satellite. Satellites can contain a variety of equipment that sophisticated elektroinik with resources from the solar cell that weighs not too big.

Diode

Diodes are the simplest semiconductor components, it is composed of two (2) the cathode and anode electrodes.

Ends of the body diode is usually given the undersigned, a bracelet or a point, which marks the location of the cathode.

Diodes can only energized the DC direction only, in the opposite direction of the DC current will not flow. If the silicon diode is energized AC currents of electricity, then that flows only in one direction only so that the flow of DC current output diode.

When the anode potential given the positive and negative cathode, said diode be forward biased and if the contrary, is said to be a reverse biased diode. At forward bias, the difference in voltage between the cathode and the anode is called the threshold voltage or the knee voltage. Large voltage depends on the type of diode, can be 0.2V, 0.6V and so forth.

When the diodes are reverse biased (which vary depending on supply voltage is called voltage is reversed. This reverse voltage should not exceed a certain price, this price is called the breakdown voltage, such as type 1N4001 diode registration 50V.

Germanium diode types such as type 1N4148 or 1N60 when given forward bias to continue the radio-frequency vibrations and when forward bias is removed, will block the radio-frequency vibrations. The existence of these properties, diode types are used to switch.

Zener Diode is a diode which has the properties that the reversal is very stable voltage, this voltage is called the zener voltage. On top of the zener voltage, this diode will deliver electricity in two directions. Diodes are used as a voltage stabilizer or voltage regulator. These diodes form like ordinary diode, the difference can be seen only from the type written on body and zener voltage seen at vademicum.

A diode is another type of Light Emitting Diode (LED) which can give off light when a given forward bias. Diodes of this type are widely used as indicators and displays. For example, can be used for seven segments (display number).

Photo diode has another nature, which contrast with the LED is going to generate electric current when exposed to light. The amount of electrical current depending on the size of the incoming light.

Variable Capacitance Diodes also called varicap diode or varactor diodes. The nature of this diode is reverse direction when they are paired according to the will act as a condenser. Capacitance depends on the incoming voltage. Diodes of this type are widely used in FM modulator and also on the VCO of a PLL (Phase Lock Loop).

To create a rectifier on the power supply, the market sold many diode bridge. This diode is a silicon diode which assembled into a bridge and packed into a single unitary component. In the market sold various forms of diode bridge with a variety of capacities. The size of the main bridge diodes are voltage and amperage maximum.

Lots of general use of diodes and diode can be used among others to:

1. Safety
2. Rectifier
3. Voltage regulators
4. Modulator
5. Frequency controller
6. Indicator
7. Switch

Thyristor, Triac and DIAC

In principle, thyristor or also called SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) ​​is a diode that can deliver if given the gate current (current steering). Gate currents are only given a moment alone is sufficient and the thyristor will continue to deliver even though the gate current no longer exists. This is different from the transistor base current which must be given continuously.

Triac is a thyristor that works for AC, while DIAC will resist the flow towards the two parties apart, but after the voltage exceeds a certain price, he will deliver in full.

Transistor

The next semiconductor components are transistors, these components include components that are virtually a simple structure when compared with the integrated circuit.

In principle, a transistor consists of two diodes are put together. In order for a transistor to work, to foot feet should be given voltage, this voltage is called the bias voltage. Basisemitor given forward voltage, reverse voltage while basiskolektor given. The nature of the transistor is that between the collector and emitter will be no current (transistor will deliver) when there is base current. The bigger the base the greater flows delivery.

Various forms of transistors that were sold in the market, packaging sheath material also there are various kinds such as metal sheath, ceramic and there are sheathed polyester. Transistors usually have three legs, feet first is called the base, the next leg is called the collector and the third leg is called the emitter.

A small electric current to the base will cause a much greater flow between the collector and emitter, therefore the transistor is used to strengthen the current (amplifier).

There are two types of transistors are NPN and PNP types. In the NPN transistor base and collector voltage positive emitter, while the PNP transistor base voltage and collector emitter voltage is negative.

Transistors can be used among others to:

1. As amplifier current, voltage and power (AC and DC)
2. As rectifier
3. As mixer
4. As oscillator
5. As switch

Union Junktion Transistors (UJT)

Junktion Union Transistors (UJT) is a transistor having one emitter and two base leg. Functionality of this transistor is mainly for electronic switches. There are two types of UJT UJT UJT Canal Canal N and P.

Field Effect Transistor (FET)

Field Effect Transistor (FET) is a special type of transistor. Unlike ordinary transistor, which will deliver if given the currents in the base, the type FET transistor will deliver if given voltage (not current). His legs are named Gate (G), Drain (D) and Source (S).

Some advantages compared to the FET transistor is common among other big gains, as well as a low sigh. Due to the higher price of FET transistor, only used on parts that are needed. The physical shape FET there is a wide range similar to the transistor.

Like the transistor, there are two types of FET channel Canal N and P. Unless there is some kind of FET is Junktion FET (JFET) and Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET).

MOSFET

Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) is a type FET having a drain, a source and one or two Gate. MOSFET has a very high input impedance. Given a high enough price, then the MOSFET is used only on the parts that really need it. Its use such as RF amplifier in a receiver to obtain a high amplification with low sigh.

In packaging and assembly by using MOSFET need note that these components are not resistant to electrostatic, packaged using tinfoil, solder using a special type of solder for soldering the MOSFET.

Like the FET, there are two kinds of MOSFET is P Canal and Canal N.

Integrated Circuit

Integrated Circuit (IC) is actually an electronic circuit which is packed into one small package. Several large series can be integrated into one and packaged in a small package. A small IC which can contain hundreds or even thousands of components.

IC form can vary, there are three such LM7805-legged, there's nothing like a transistor with a foot lot eg LM741.

IC form there is also a comb-like (single in line), the other is a rectangular shape with the legs are on the four sides, but most of the IC form of dual in-line (DIL).

IC that is round and dual in-line, the legs are serial numbered in the order in a clockwise direction, foot ONE number given marked point or a notch.

Each IC is marked with a number type, this number usually indicates the type of IC, so if the number is the same as the IC function. Other code indicates the manufacturer, such as type 741 operational amplifier can come up with a sign uA741, LM741, MC741, RM741 SN72741 and so forth.

A group called the IC linear ICs, such as IC regulator, Operational Amplfier, audio amplifiers and so forth. Meanwhile, another IC group called digital IC such as NAND, NOR, OR, AND EXOR, BCD to seven segment decoder and so forth.

This type of IC which is now developed and widely used is Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) and Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS).

Type CMOS is widely available in the market is families 4000, for example 4049, 4050 and so forth. Type TTL marked with numbers beginning 54 or 74. 54 Prefix indicating the military requirement is the ability to work from 54 to 125C temperature. While the prefix 74 indicates the commercial terms is able to work at a temperature of 0 to 70C.

TTL numbering was done with 2, 3 or 4 digit number followed prefix, for example 7400, 74 192 and so forth. The letters in between the prefix and suffix signifies subfamil. For example the U.S. (Advance Schottkey), ALS (Advanced Low Power Schottkey), H (High Speed), L (Low Speed), LS (Low Power Schottkey) and S (Schottkey).

Compared with using a transistor circuit with a circuit using the IC, IC tend to use more practical and cost is relatively minor ore.

At this time have developed many types of IC, to hundreds of species that can not be discussed in general. To use our IC IC vademicum must have factory-issued by the manufacturer. Each type of IC has its own explanation of its nature and how to use them.

If we turn the page vademicum IC, we will see various symbols IC logic. The meaning of this symbol symbol-will we learn when it began experimenting with digital ICs.

By studying a series of IC, which consists of so many components, then we can imagine that such a tool is practically impossible assembled using electron tubes.

2 komentar:


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