Senin, 08 Juli 2013

power plants

NPP basically operates on the same principle as conventional power plants, but the differences in the way the generation of heat to generate steam. In the conventional power plants, the heat generated from the combustion of fossil (oil, coal, gas), while the heat generated from nuclear fission reactions of atomic nuclei fuel (Uranium) in a nuclear reactor. The resulting heat is used to generate steam in the steam generators and then, just as in a conventional power plant, the steam is used to drive a turbine and generator to produce electricity. In electricity generation, nuclear power does not release fumes or dust containing heavy metals or CO2, SO2, NOx into the environment.

 The figure below shows the operation principle of the scheme NPP press type reactor (PWR).

As mentioned above, the heat to generate steam in a nuclear core obtained from the division process. The figure below shows the core division process. When a neutron particle successful entry into the nucleus of uranium fuel, the uranium core becomes unstable and consequently have cleavage. The results of this division are two other pieces of material atoms, 2 to 3 pieces of new neutrons and energy. Total mass of all the materials that formed after the fission of uranium nuclei is smaller than before the division. The difference is that the mass turned into energy. Newly formed neutron core after division can grind other uranium nuclei and so generate other material atoms, 2-3 pieces of new neutrons and energy. And so on, forming a chain reaction. One gram of Uranium will be able to generate power equal to 1 million watts for 1 day. If a home uses energy of 1000 kilowatt-hours in a day, the energy produced 1 gram of uranium can be used for about 24 days.

In order for a chain reaction does not develop into uncontrollable, like the atom bomb, the control material is used, among others, made out of cadmium, to create a chain reaction running stable and controllable. New neutron fission results have a very high speed, therefore in order to more easily fit into the nucleus of neutrons must be slowed. Materials often used as pelambat or moderator is plain water that has minerals removed. Can also use heavy water, or graphite as a moderator in accordance with the type of fuel. The heat generated in the uranium fuel is very high. If the cooling is not done then the fuel could be damaged or melted. There are several types of materials that are usually used as a coolant, such as light water, heavy water, liquid sodium metal, and gas. Selection of type of coolant depends also on the type of fuel. Fulfillment Energy Indoneseia that once rich with energy resources, is now no longer the case. Indonesian petroleum resources of around 321 billion barrels (1.2 percent of the world's potential), about 507 TSCF gas (3.3 percent of the world's potential), coal about 50 billion tonnes (3 per cent of the world's potential), approximately 27,000 MW of geothermal (40 percent of the potential of the world), and about 75,000 MW hydropower (0.02 per cent of the world's potential). Proved reserves of crude oil in 2002, about 5 billion barrels, proven natural gas reserves around 90 TSCF, and proven coal reserves of about 5 billion tons. With a production level as in 2002, and in the absence of new proven reserves, oil reserves will be exhausted within 10 years, 30 years of natural gas, and coal 50 years. Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) in the First Congress of Accounting Professional Organization Practitioner of Natural Resources and Environment in Baturaden, December 12, we estimate the oil reserves can only provide for up to seven years. How do we meet the energy needs of the future.

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