Sabtu, 29 Oktober 2011

Mini-micro hydropower

The flow of water that flows from the highlands towards the more lace has a potential energy that can be utilized as a source of new energy. With good planning strategy for the development of energy sources such as this in turn will be able to overcome the problem of energy crisis in various places. But due to lack of planning several projects in the strategy development of alternative energy sources has not been obtained optimal benefits. often Power Plant construction project Mini-micro hydropower (MHP) there are various constraints such as low load factor, Surveying incomplete data availability and the lack of participation of surrounding communities, this led to the expected benefits from the potential of renewable energy sources has not been optimal. Therefore it needs a presence of an improvement.

Power micro hydro power

Generating a mini-micro hydro power plants are basically constructed in order to program the Village Electrical Sign (LISDES) with the utilization of hydropower resources. The construction project is primarily directed to remote areas unreachable grid. Generation is done by utilizing the flow of water from the tributaries are small or of irrigation channels. One of the factors that draw power from the mini-micro hydro is a relatively simple technology. However, if the feasibility study before the implementation of development projects is not adequate then the consequences become less efficient operation of the generation can not even operate at all.

Micro hydro is a generator that can generate electrical energy up to 100 KW while for a power plant that can produce electrical energy equal to 100 KW - 5 MW are defined as micro-hydro power plant. Mini-micro hydro power potential in Indonesia about 7,500 MW with an installed capacity of 200 MW. According to Central Statistics Agency (BPS) in 2000, about 60% of Indonesia's population live in remote villages. The number of villages in Indonesia as many as 58,545 villages, until the end of December 2000 which had as many as 49,155 villages have electricity.

Advantages micro hydro power plants

Some of the advantages of mini-micro hydro energy from others (Das, 2002) is:

· Clean Environment

· Renewable energy

· Not to consumptive water use

· Easy to operate as base load and peak load (can be quickly on / off)

· Cost low operating

· Durable (Long Life)

· Ideal for remote areas

Most of the mini-micro hydro development projects aimed to remote areas that have not passed by the grid. Problems develop when these arise as a result of the economical factors. Electrical energy consumption by rural communities generally ranges between 4-5 hours per day or 14-16% of installed power. The low energy consumption (load factor) is caused by the use of only as a mere illumination lamps. Economy aspects of power generation mini-micro hydro can be achieved with a careful plan by involving the participation of local communities are actively since the beginning of project development and integration of the apparatus with the village residents.

Besides generating a mini-micro hydro power plants have their own transmission and distribution network operation and management which can be referred directly to the local village board through cooperative enterprise. As an example of the success of the mini-micro hydro project in China because of high levels of electrical energy consumption by a factor of the load reaches 50-60% of installed power capacity and its management handed over to cooperatives.

Simple model intended use of electric energy produced to achieve load factors of more than 50% are as follows:


· Grinding of agricultural products

· Cooking

· Small Industries (cooling, distillation, etc.)

Afternoon Day:

· Lighting

· Home appliances

Night Day:

· Hatching eggs

· Fumigation fish

· Drying of agricultural products

Installation Type MHP

Broadly speaking MHP installation types can be grouped into two. Include the installation of mountainous areas and the installation of a flat area.

a. This type of installation for mountainous areas generally consist of the following components:

1. Door collection (Intake / Diversion)

2. Bath deposition (Desilting Tank)

3. Dissipation channel (Headrace)

4. Bak tranquilizers (Forebay)

5. Rapid pipe (penstock)

6. Building Plant (Power House)

7. Discard channel (Tailrace)

8. Transmission Network (Grid Line)

b. Installation of Flat Area

This type of installation for flat areas generally consist of the following main components:

Door collection (Intake / Diversion)

Channel Power (Power Canal)

Dissipation channel (Headrace)

Building Plant (Power House)

Discard channel (Tailrace)

Transmission Network (Grid Line)

Selection of Technology

Selection of technology in the construction of mini-micro hydro mainly lies in the selection of the main components of the turbine and generator. This is due to the area to be installed mini-micro hydro power plants have characteristics spesification.

a. type of hydropower turbine depends on the head and discharge water. For mountain areas that have low discharge height with high head turbine type is more suitable for use while in a flat area with a large discharge of water can use this type of canal drop low head turbine.

b. Types of Generators, In general there are two types of generators used in MHP, ie synchronous generators and induction generators.

Synchronous generators working on changing speeds. To be able to keep the generator speed remains, use an electronic speed governor. Generators of this type can be used directly and does not need another power grid as early movers. Highly suitable for use in remote villages with insulation systems.

Induction generators, is not required system voltage regulation and speed. However, this type of generator can not work alone because it requires an electrical grid system as early movers. Generators of this type are more suitable for areas that have been passed by the power grid (Grid System).


A micro hydro power projects are continuing to consider the following factors:

1. Planning in the choice of technology must be supported by concrete data, simply and can be accounted accountability.

2. The need for utilization of electrical energy for productive activities in the afternoon and evening in an optimal

3. The existence of local community participation through the establishment of proper management organization, between society and the institutions or agencies.

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