Senin, 22 Agustus 2011

Electrolytic conductor

In chemistry, the electrolyte is a substance containing free ions that make it electrically conductive. The most common type of electrolyte is a solution of ions, but the fused substance electrolytes and solid electrolytes are also there.

Electrolyte is a substance that dissolves or decomposes into the form of ions and the subsequent solution of the electrical conductor, the ions are electrically charged atoms. Electrolyte can be water, acid, base or other form of chemical compounds. Electrolytes are generally in the form of acid, alkali or salt. Some of the specific gas can serve as an electrolyte in certain conditions such as high temperature or low pressure. Strong electrolyte is identical with acids, bases, salts and strong. Electrolytes are compounds that bind to ionic and polar covalent. Most of the compounds that bind ion as an example of an electrolyte NaCl ionic bond, which is one type of salt that is salt. NaCl preformance can be electrolyte solution and form a melt. or liquid form and aqueous. whereas in the form of solid or solid ionic compounds can not serve as an electrolyte.

Electrolytes generally exist in the form of acidic, alkaline, or salt. Several types of gas can also serve as an electrolyte in high temperature conditions and low pressure (eg when there is lightning and the workings of a plasma TV). Electrolyte solution can also be produced from a solution of biological compounds (DNA and polypeptides, genes used in the separation process) and synthetic polymers (called polyelectrolytes; eg polystyrene sulfonate).

Electrolyte solution is generally formed when salts are dissolved in a solvent such as water, and salt components separate due to thermodynamic interactions between solvent and solute, a process called solvation. For example, the salt is dissolved into water. Salt as a solid form would be dissolved into its constituent components, namely Na + and Cl-.

Electrolytes can also be made by dissolving the substance in which these substances also react with water, for example, dissolving carbon dioxide gas into water to produce a solution containing H + ions, carbonate, and carbonic acid (eg, in the process of making carbonated beverages).

Molten substances that are usually dissolved in a solvent for the electrolyte solution can also be an electrolyte as well, such as molten salt that can conduct electricity.

Strength of the electrolyte depends on the amount of ions dissolved in it. If the substance is dissolved does not produce ions, then it is said to be non-electrolytes. Or if the resulting ions are few in number because of the ability dissosiatifnya with a weak solvent, then it is said a weak electrolyte solution, and only able to conduct electricity in very limited quantities.

Adalam strong solution of electrolyte solution that has good electrical conductivity, because the substance inside terarut entirely solvent can be transformed into ions. Classified as strong electrolytes are: strong acids (HCl, HClO3, HClO4, H2SO4, HNO3, etc.), strong bases (bases of alkali and alkaline earth group), and salts with high solubility (NaCl, KCl, KI, Al2 (SO4) 3, and so on).

Weak electrolyte solution is a solution that can conduct electrical currents are weak because of the solute components are not entirely transformed into ions, but only partially. Classified as a weak electrolyte solution is a weak acid, weak base, and salt-soluble salts (AgCl, CaCrO4, PbI2, and so on).

Non electrolyte solution is a solution of the components of the solute can not be turned into ions. This is because the molecular bond is too strong so it is difficult to separate themselves in the solution. Generally, a solution of polymer compounds and polymer compound itself is a non electrolyte. An example is the urea solution, sucrose solution, glucose solution, alcohol solution, and so on.

When electrodes are placed in the electrolyte and the electrical voltage applied, the electrolyte will conduct electricity. Chemical reactions will occur at the cathode consuming electrons released by the anode, and other reactions occur at the anode that emit electrons to the cathode was arrested. This will produce a cloud of electrons surrounding the cathode and electron-poor conditions at the anode. To overcome this, the ions in the solution moves to take charge collected so that chemical reaction occurs, similar to those occurring at the anode, so the charge becomes neutral and the electron flow may continue to occur. This condition is often referred to as electrolysis (electro: electricity, lysis: digest).

An example of electrolysis is that when a salt solution of NaCl by electricity, the cathode reaction occurring is:
2H2O + 2e--> 2OH-+ H2
and hydrogen gas will be liberated from the cathode. Reaction at anode:
2H2O -> O2 + 4H + + 4e-
and oxygen gas will bubble from the anode. Positively charged Na + ions will react with the negative charge neutralization of the cathode, namely OH-and form NaOH, and the negatively charged Cl-ions will react with the positively charged anode neutralization results, namely H +, forming HCl. They will react to form H2O + NaCl NaCl so that the ionic liquid will return to form.

Please note that why not Na + gain electrons to become neutral, but instead of H2O, and not the Cl-which releases electrons to become neutral, but H2O is also, this is because Na + has oxidation state higher than H2O making it easier for H2O to capture electrons than Na + because it takes less energy. This is also true for Cl-that thinking about the high level reduktivitas.

Electrolytic conductor used in various industrial fields, including:
Fuel cell
Electroplating process
Electrolytic capacitor
Hydrometallurgical process
Making glass by melting the glass using electric currents

In our body, especially body fluids and blood, fluid balance is determined by the number of ions in the body which is calculated in units of electric charge as it affects the absorption of liquid dissolved in the intracellular or extracellular. Primary ions in the body are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphoric acid, and carbonic acid. Known forms of life require a balance of electrolytes in the intracellular and extracellular because it involves the transportation of minerals, fluids, and nutrition. Electrolyte imbalance can affect hydration gradient of the body, blood pH, and muscle and nerve function. Berbadag mechanisms and physiological function of all living beings oeh applied in maintaining the balance in a controlled manner.

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