Sabtu, 02 Januari 2010

Electrical problem became one of the many issues discussed today

Electrical problem became one of the many issues discussed today. Occurrence of power blackouts in rotation, rising subscription prices of electricity, and efforts to seek new sources of electricity is a central issue became the center of attention many parties. However, the fundamental problem of electricity as the management issues covered by the recent warm up, as mentioned above. It's no secret that companies that manage the electricity is always a loss. Through this paper, the author invites all parties to return attention to this fundamental problem. Tire Overview As an opening to discuss the power management problem, let us review the general structure of the electricity management. In electrical systems there are at least three general functions or subsystems, ie subsystems generation, transmission, and distribution. Each of these subsystems has characteristics and functions of different but mutually related. Next will be discussed each of these subsystems. Generation subsystem has a function to produce (make) or generate electricity. This subsystem is basically a plant that produces electricity but because electricity is not an object that can be seen then produce more precise term is expressed by generating electricity. Electricity can be generated from a variety of ways, using water is called hydroelectric power (hydroelectric), using water vapor called steam power plant (steam power), and others. Generation subsystem is usually located in places where electricity is generated. Hydropower is located in the dam or reservoir, power plant located near the source of producing geothermal steam, and so on. Electricity generated can not be stored or used to be accommodated, but must be directly channeled to the place where the electricity would be used. Thus, there is no storage of electricity or electric storage tank. This is one of the electrical characteristics in terms of production. Because electricity can not be stored, then it must continue to electricity supplied from the subsystem to the electricity generation would be used. This is where the role of the transmission subsystem. This subsystem serves electricity to places where electricity is used. Besides electricity generation places that are usually much needed way for electricity to flow to another place. So, we often see the electrical cables to form high voltage power lines that stretch from one place to another, that is classified as a transmission subsystem. Before electricity came to the user, high voltage power lines that are drawn from the power subsystem needs to be divided into several users. Subsystem that runs this function is called the distribution subsystem. At this stage of electricity divided by a certain voltage to a number of users, both domestic users and industrial users. We often see electric sentry sentry-spread in some places, this is where electricity is distributed. At the ticket booth, ticket booth have the transformer that serves to raise or lower the voltage to the appropriate voltage. We also often hear a power cut in a region associated with the incident in a bus shelter, because this bus shelter is in electrical distribution centers in the area. The process of calculating the cost of electricity used by the user, losses due to theft of electricity, and all sorts of problems directly related to electricity users included in the distribution subsystem. The management of electrical systems in Indonesia, which includes three functions as described above performed by a single operator and a state-owned enterprises (SOEs), the PLN. Thus the general and concise explanation of an electrical system. Here is discussed how the electricity generated in hydroelectric power away from the city center streamed and used by people in the city center. Evaluation of Existing Tire From the explanation of the electrical system on and compare with existing electrical systems currently managed by PLN, I think there are things that require attention. 1. Have managers take into account the amount of electrical system electricity generated in the generation subsystem, and then flows through the transmission subsystems, to the distribution subsystem, and last until the user directly? Is there a number of electricity wasted in the whole process? if we look at electricity as a product that will sell the loss of electricity means losing a number of products. This means that there is a price that does not sell products, and could mean loss. An integrated electrical system is good, of course, will reduce the amount of this loss by calculating the amount of electricity generated and how much is used and paid for by the user or consumer. 2. We know different types of power generation. Hydropower uses water, steam power plant using steam from geothermal sources, and so on. Each electricity source available, or run with a different cost. What are the differences of each generation systems do not affect the difference in the value of electricity sold to consumers? Should not consumers who use electricity from hydropower is different from consumers who use electricity from the power plant? Or, if in a region to use electricity from hydroelectric power, why should they be affected by fuel price increases that are used in other plants? From the standpoint of justice, it certainly looks very unfair. Electricity costs should apply locally appropriate plants that run in the region concerned. 3. How to calculate and manage the electricity distribution? In view of the business, which sold electricity and paid by the user in accordance with the electricity received from the generation and transmission subsystems. Indeed there are a number of electricity lost during transmission is usually already taken into account when designing transmission subsystems, but the amount of electricity lost due to the design of the guardhouse, unauthorized use or theft of electricity should have taken into account as well. Have it done by the electricity system manager? From the standpoint of effectiveness and profit, the problems above can be used as the basis for evaluating the management performance of electrical current. The above of course only a small portion of the existing problems, but from here we can analyze the existing system to find a solution that can be filed. Alternative Tire From a number of issues above, required a step forward in the management of electricity that can restore the effectiveness and power management company profits. From the above explanation, it appears that the problem lies in the management of electrical power distribution and management of electricity distribution of funds. So far the management of electrical systems including subsystems generation, transmission, and distribution done by a government institution, the PLN. In this case PLN power plant building and its maintenance (maintenance), building a transmission system and its maintenance, and perform electrical service to the user as the party face to face with consumers. For reasons of effectiveness and profit, the authors propose an alternative electricity system in the management of electrical separation. Here the electricity system is divided into two separate systems in the management of each function independently. Generation and transmission systems are on one side with a separate management and on the other side of the distribution system with a separate management too. In this electrical systems, the generation and transmission of electricity produced and sold to other parties, namely the distribution system. Distribution system to buy electricity from generators and transmission systems for electricity sold to the user as a consumer. Here, both generation and transmission systems and distribution systems to run their business as a business institution is trying to grab profits. As a business institution which aims to generate profits, each person buying or selling. Thus, both generation and transmission systems and distribution systems should not expect losses on each side. This makes all parties to carry out their business functions and effectively to achieve business benefit. Electrical system through the management separation between generation and transmission systems to distribution systems is an alternative in the management of electrical systems. This alternative system is a proposal in order to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and profit gains expected from a management of an electrical system. Electricity is the nature of things that arise from the existence of electric charge. Electricity, can also be interpreted as follows: * Electricity is the condition of certain subatomic particles, like electrons and protons, which led to the withdrawal and rejection of force. * Electricity is a source of energy that is channeled through wires. Electric current caused by electric charge flows from the positive channel to channel negative. Together with magnetism, electricity form the fundamental interaction known as electromagnetism. Electricity allows many physical phenomena that are well known, such as lightning, electric fields and electric currents. Electricity widely used in industrial applications such as electronics and electric power. Electrical properties Electricity gives rise to the natural 4 base styles, and its remains in the body that can be measured. In this case, the phrase "the amount of electricity" is used also with the phrase "electric charge" and also "the amount of charge". There are 2 types of electric charge: positive and negative. Through experiments, similar charges repel-and-opposite sex charges attract each other. Magnitude of this interesting and refused Coulomb established by law. Some effects of electrical phenomena discussed in electricity and electromagnetism. The SI unit of electric charge is the coulomb, which has an abbreviation "C". The symbol Q is used in the equation to represent the quantity of electricity or charge. For example, "Q = 0.5 C" means "the quantity of electric charge is 0.5 coulomb". If electricity flows through a special material, such as those of tungsten and tungsten, incandescent light will be emitted by the metal. Such materials were used in a light bulb (or bulb bulblamp). Every time electricity flows through a material that has resistance, then the heat will be released. The greater the electrical current, then the resulting heat will be doubled. This property is used in the element iron and electric stove. Friends with electricity Electricity flows from positive to channel the negative channel. With direct current electricity if we hold only positive cable (but do not hold the negative cables), electricity will not flow into our bodies (we do not get a shock). Similarly, if we just hold a negative channel. With an electric alternating current, electricity can also flow into the earth (or floor). This is caused by the electricity system that uses the earth as a neutral reference voltage (ground). This reference, which is usually in pairs at two places (one on the ground in an electric pole and one on ground at home). Therefore, if we hold the power supply and our feet tread the earth or our hands touch the wall, the voltage difference between electrical cables in hand with the tension in the leg (ground), making electricity flowing from hand to foot so that we will experience an electric shock ( "shock affected "). Electricity can be stored, for example in a battery or batteries. Small utility, for example, stored in batteries, will not stun effect on the body. In a large car battery, there is usually a small stun effect, though not too big and dangerous. Electricity flows from the positive pole of battery / battery to the negative pole. Electrical systems that go into our house, if you use 1 phase electrical system, usually consisting of 3 wires: * The first phase is the cable that is a source of alternating electricity (positive and negative qalabah through continuous). This cable is the cable that carries the voltage from power plants (eg PLN) this cable is usually called the hot wire (hot), can be compared as the positive pole in direct current electrical system (although the physics are not right). * Second is the neutral wire. This cable is basically a zero voltage reference cable, which is usually connected to ground at the power station (in PLN's office for example) can be compared as the negative pole in direct current electrical system, so if the electricity to flow into the lamp, for example, then one leg lamp cable must be connected to the light phase and the other leg connected to the neutral wire, if held, the neutral wire is usually not cause a dangerous shock effect, but due to possible differences between the reference zero voltage at the office of PLN with zero reference at our location, there is a possibility the holders feel the electric shock. In storm events electric space (space electrical storm) that large, it is possible the current will flow from ground reference to the reference one another ground far away. This natural phenomenon can trigger the occurrence of large-scale die lamp. * Third is the ground wire or ground. This cable is the zero reference at the user location, which is usually connected to ground at the home user; this cable actually comes from the metal which is planted in the ground near our house; cable is a security cable that is usually connected to the body (chassis) electric equipment home to ensure that the user devices will not experience an electric shock. Although in theory, zero reference at home (this ground wire) must be equal to zero reference at the office of PLN (neutral wire), ground wires should not be used to carry electrical current (eg from a cable to connect the light phase to ground wires). Such reckless actions only invites danger because of chassis electrical devices in the home may be a high voltage and will cause an electric shock for another user. Make sure your electrician install ground wires in the electrical system at home. This installer is important, because it is absolutely necessary for your safety from electrical shock hazards that could be fatal, and also some electrical equipment that is sensitive will not work properly if there is an electric induction appeared in chassis (eg due to Eddy currents effects). Electrical charge, Q, is the basic charge measurement of an object owned. Unit Q is the coulomb, which is 6:24 x 10 rank 18 basic charge. Q is the nature of the material owned by either the form of protons (positive charge) and electrons (negative charge). Total electric charge of an atom or the material can be positive, if the atom electron deficient. While the excess atoms will be negatively charged electrons. The amount of charge depends on the excess or shortage of electrons is, therefore, the material charge / atom is a multiple of the basic Q unit. In a neutral atom, the number of protons will be equal to the number of electrons surrounding it (to form a neutral net charge or not charge). Coulomb, denoted by C, is the SI unit for electric charge, and defined the ampere: 1 coulomb is the amount of electric charge carried by a current of 1 ampere flowing for 1 second. 1 coulomb is 6:24 × 10 power 18 times the charge of electrons. SI units SI base unit 7 is as follows (followed by the symbol and the dimension formula): * Meters for length (m, L) * Kilogram for mass (kg, M) * Second for the time (s, T) * Ampere for electric current (A, I) * Kelvin for temperature (k, T) * Mol for the number of molecules (moles, n) * Kandela to light intensity (cd, J) Two dimensionless SI units are radian (rad) and steradian (sr). Other units in the SI can be described as a combination of basic units above. Example: * Units of force / newton is a kg · m/s2. * Units of speed is meters / second (m / s) * Units of area is m 2 In physics, the ampere is denoted by A, is the SI unit for electric current. One ampere is an electric current flows, so that in between the two straight conductor of infinite length, with negligible cross-section, and placed apart a distance of one meter in a vacuum, producing a force of 2 × 10 rank -7 newtons per meter. Electric current is the amount of electric charge that flows per unit time. Electric charge can flow through wires or other electrical conductor. I = ((Q) \ over (t)) In the old days, conventional current flow is defined as the positive charge, although we now know that an electric current is generated from the flow of negatively charged electrons into the opposite direction. The SI unit of electric current is ampere (A). Conductor in electronics engineering is a substance that can conduct electrical current, either in the form of solid, liquid or gas. Because it is conductive, it is called a conductor. A good conductor is to have custody of the child. In general, metals are conductive. Gold, silver, copper, aluminum, zinc, iron, respectively have a greater resistance type. So as a conductor of gold is very good, but because it is very expensive, it is economically copper and aluminum the most widely used. Heat conduction or thermal conduction is spreading heat transfer without the intermediary of the substance. This spread typically occurs in solids. Conduction occurs from the high-temperature object to a low-temperature objects. High temperature objects will release heat, while the low temperature substance will receive heat, until thermal equilibrium is reached. Heat spreading is described by the following mathematical formula: T = C + (T0 - C) e rank kt T is the temperature, T0 initial temperature, t time, C and k are constants. Electrometer is a measure of electric charge or electrical potential difference. Electrometer types vary, ranging from hand-made electronic devices to high-precision. Modern Electrometer based on vacuum tube technology or solid phase (solid state) can be used to measure electrical current is very small to 1 femtoamper. Elektroskop is a tool more simple kind, which works on similar principles, but merely indicates the relative amount of voltage or electric charge. Galvanometer is a strong measure very weak currents. Works the same way with Amperemeter, voltmeter, and ohmmeter. The third tool works the same way with electric motors, but because it has the spring, the coil is not rotating. Is a tool / tools to measure the voltage of electricity in an electrical circuit. This instrument consists of three copper plates mounted on a Bakelite which are arranged in a glass or plastic tube. Outer plate acts as anode while the middle one as the cathode. Generally these tubes measuring 15 x 10cm (height x diameter). Electric voltage (sometimes referred to as voltage) is the electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit, and is expressed in units of volts. This scale measures the potential energy of an electric field causing the flow of electricity in an electrical conductor. Depending on the electrical potential difference, an electrical voltage can be considered as extra low, low, high or extra high. Potential energy is energy generated by the relative position or configuration of objects in a physical system. Forms of energy has the potential to change the state of other objects in the vicinity, for example, the configuration or motion. A simple example of this energy is if someone brings a stone up a hill and put it in there, the stone will have gravitational potential energy. If we stretch a rubber band, we can say that the rubber band to get the elastic potential energy. Various types of energy can be classified as potential energy. Every form of energy is associated with a particular type of force that works against a particular physical properties of matter (such as mass, charge, elasticity, temperature, etc.). Gravitational potential energy associated with the gravitational force acting on the mass of the object; elastic potential energy of elastic forces (electromagnetic force) are working against the elasticity of the object that changed shape; electrical potential energy by coulomb force; strong nuclear force or weak to work on an electrical charge on object; chemical potential energy, the chemical potential of an atomic or molecular configuration of the particular working towards an atomic or molecular structure of chemicals that make up the object; thermal potential energy with the electromagnetic force is related to the temperature of the object. Electric field is the effect caused by the presence of electric charges, such as electrons, ions, or protons, in a room nearby. Electric field has units of N / C or read newton / coulomb. Electric field is generally studied in physics and related fields. Indirectly electronics have used electric field in the wire conductor (cable). Newton is the SI derived units with the symbol N, which is a unit of force, named after Sir Isaac Newton. One newton is the amount of force needed to create a body of mass of one kilogram an acceleration of one meter per second per second. Definition 1 N = 1 kg.m.s rank-2 Vectors in mathematics and physics is an object geometry that has magnitude and direction. Vectors when drawn is denoted by an arrow (?). Large vector arrows is proportional to the length and direction coincides with the direction of the arrow. Can represent the displacement vector from point A to B. Vectors are often characterized as \ overrightarrow (AB). Vector plays an important role in physics: the position, velocity and acceleration of the moving object and the force described as a vector. Vector length To find the length of a vector in euklidian three-dimensional space, can use the following ways: vector display images. The similarity of two vectors Two vectors say if they have the same length and same direction. Alignment of two vectors Two Fruit Vectors are parallel (parallel) if the line that represents the two vectors are parallel. Scalar A vector can be multiplied by a scalar that will produce a vector, too, is the result vector: scalar images. Additions vector images and vector reduction Unit vector Unit vector is a vector of length 1 unit length. Unit vector of a vector can be searched by: Unit vector images. In classical mechanics, momentum (denoted by p) is defined as the product of mass and velocity, resulting in the vector. The formula used to calculate the value of the momentum of the object: \ mathbf (P) = m \ mathbf (v) \, \! or P = M.V Where P is momentum, m is the mass of the object, and v is the velocity. Momentum is a vector quantity. The momentum of a particle can be regarded as a measure of difficulty for the silent object. For example, a heavy truck has a greater momentum than the lighter cars are moving with the same speed. Greater the force required to stop the truck than a car light in a certain time. (The quantity mv is sometimes expressed as the linear momentum of the particle to distinguish it from the angular momentum). In the physical sciences, style or kakas is anything that can cause a body of mass is accelerating. Has a great style and direction, making it a vector quantity. The SI unit used to measure the force is the Newton (denoted by N). Based on Newton's second law, a body with constant mass will be accelerated is proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass. drawing style. Another explanation is similar, the net force acting on a body is proportional to the rate of change of momentum is going through. momentum picture is going through. Style is not something essential in the physical sciences, although there is a tendency to introduce the concepts of physics through this. Even more basic is the momentum, energy and pressure. Actually, no one can measure the force directly. However, if something says one measure of style, a little thought would make a person realize that what is actually measured is the pressure (or perhaps its slope). "Style" that you feel when you touch your skin, for example, is actually the nerve cells that receive your pressure changes in pressure. Spring balance to measure the size of the spring tension, which actually is the pressure, etc.. In everyday language associated with the drive force or traction, may be deployed by our muscles. In physics, we need a more precise definition. We define the style here in relation to the acceleration experienced by a given standard object when placed in suitable environments. As we use the standard objects (or seems to imagine that we use it!) Platinum cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures near Paris and is called the standard kilogram. In physics, force is the action or the agent that causes the body mass to move forward. This may be experienced as a force, push or pull. Acceleration of the object is proportional to the vector sum of all forces acting on it (known as the net force or resultant force). In the extended object, the force may also cause rotation, deformation or increase pressure on the body. The effect of rotation is determined by the torque, while deformation and pressure is determined by the stress created by the force. Mathematically net force equal to the rate of change of momentum of the body where the force acts. Because momentum is a vector quantity (magnitude and direction), the force is also a vector quantity. The concept of style has formed part of the statics and dynamics since ancient times. Ancient Contributions of statics culminated in the work of Archimedes in the third century BCE, which still form part of modern physics. In contrast, the dynamics of a misunderstanding of Aristotle combined the role of intuition are ultimately corrected style in the 17th century, culminating in the work of Isaac Newton. According to the development of quantum mechanics, is now understood that particles influence each other with each other through the fundamental interactions, making force as a useful concept only in a macroscopic concept. Only four known fundamental interactions: strong, electromagnetic, weak (combined into one elektrolemah interaction in the 1970s), and gravity (in order of decreasing interaction strength). Aristotle and his followers believed that the natural state of objects on earth did not move and that the objects tend to the situation that if left alone. Aristotle distinguished between the innate tendency of objects to find the "natural place" they (eg, heavy objects fall), which led to "natural motion", and no natural or forced motion, which requires continuous application of force. But this theory, although based on the everyday experience of how objects move (eg, horses and carts), have an irritating problem for the calculation of the projectile, such as flight arrows. Several theories have been discussed for centuries, and the idea of mid-end of that object in motion have brought an innate thrust is to influence the work of Galileo. Galileo conducted an experiment in which stones and shells both rolled on a steepness to prove the opposite of Aristotle's theory of motion in the early 17th century. Galileo showed that objects accelerated by the gravity of which no independent mass and argued that objects retain their velocity if they are not influenced by the style - usually friction. Isaac Newton was known as a contender explicitly for the first time, that in general, a constant force causes constant rate of change (time derivative) of the momentum. In essence, he gave the first mathematical definition and only mathematical definition of the quantity of the force itself - as a time derivative of momentum: F = dp / dt. In 1784 Charles Coulomb discovered the inverse square law of interaction between the electric charge using a torsional balance, which is the second fundamental forces. Strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force is found in the 20th century. With the development of quantum field theory and general relativity, we realize that the "style" is a concept that comes from excessive conservation of momentum (momentum in relativity and 4 momentum of virtual particles in quantum electrodynamics). Thus, today known fundamental forces are more accurately called "fundamental interactions". Hollywood Types Although there are clearly many types of forces in the universe, they are all based on the four fundamental forces. Strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force acts only at very short distances and are responsible for "binding" a particular nucleon and nuclear up. Electromagnetic force acts between electric charges and gravitational forces acting between the masses. Pauli exception principle responsible for the tendency of atoms to not "overlap" with each other, and is become responsible for "stiffness" of matter, but it also depends on the electromagnetic force that binds the contents of each atom. All the other styles based on the fourth of this style. For example, friction is a manifestation of the electromagnetic force acting between the atoms of two surfaces, and Pauli exception principle, which does not allow the atoms to break through each other. The forces in springs modeled by Hooke's law is also the result of electromagnetic force and Pauli exception principle acting together to return the object to the position of balance. Centrifugal force is the force of acceleration that comes simply from the acceleration of the rotation frame of reference. Modern quantum mechanical view of the first three fundamental forces (all except gravity) is that particles of matter (fermions) do not directly interact with each other but rather to exchange virtual particles (bosons).

1 komentar:

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