Minggu, 27 Desember 2009



In order to create a radio station works well and radiates with a strong beam in accordance with the transmit power is owned radio, a user is required to be able to find out how to install, use and maintenance of all radio station equipment.

If we look at many radio stations have communications equipment will suffice but transmit power and reception power is relatively weak because much of the equipment does not work properly and the maximum.

Equipment enabled the radio station with an improper way, not only made transmit power and reception power becomes weak but also can make the life of some equipment or components to be brief.

Will be discussed here about all the equipment of a communication station in order to help users of communication stations, especially the members of the RAPI, in order to use, using and maintaining all radio station equipment properly.

There are several tools that should be understood how it works, at least know a little about the equipment to be able to communicate well and smoothly. Such equipment include:

Radio Tranceiver

Tranceiver comes from two syllables, namely: Radio Transmitter Tranmitter means, and that means Receiver Radio Receiver. Radio Transceiver can be concluded is an aircraft that serves as a Radio Transmitter and Receiver Radio.

Between the transmitter with the receiver to work interchangeably. At the time of radiated / transmit we can not monitor / hear because the receiver does not work. And vice versa, at the monitors when we can not radiate because at that time radio transmitter was not working. This is because the frequency transmitter with a receiver is always the same (except frequency Repeatter). That's necessary to talk / transmit in turn to avoid transmitt / useless conversation what if the two stations are both radiating / berbicarapada the same frequency. If this happens then both stations will not be able to hear / monitor talking, which would result in communications not connect.

Transmit power / strength emitted from a radio transceiver depending on Put Out Power (watts) of the transmitter. In this section there are components that are referred to as the Final.

The receptivity of each Radio Tranceiver generally gives a chance to have a standard size, although there are some Stelan Radio with RF Gain to adjust the power of acceptance, but the maximum would be equal to other radio capabilities. RF Gain is only to reduce the power of acceptance if it is needed, usually this is often used for tracking signals (Huntting Fox) or when receiving disturbed by splatter.

Radio Transceiver that is often used in the Base Station / Station Stay termed RIG. RIG plane has an antenna and a separate Power Supply of Radio and require penghungan cable between the antenna and power supply to the radio. The voltage required for aircraft RIG is 13.8 volts DC with a +15% tolerance. This current source must be true - do not really notice until the voltage into the aircraft exceeds the provisions of RIG. Besides the installation of the poles + and - not to reverse, although only a few moments can make this rig damaged radio. This current source cable must have a strong measure in accordance with the current (ampere) which will pass through, because if the cable size is too small will make the heat especially in times of need transmit stronger currents, which would have resulted in part of this rig radio transmitter can not work maximum or a transmit power (watts) to be reduced, though did not buzz when transmits.

Then that is often overlooked is the wiring at the terminal of this current source on the Power Supply / Battery is often not attached / locked firmly. If the terminal is not locked wire there will be strong due to the occurrence of hot sparks, although not visible because of these sparks may be very small.

One more type of radio transceiver that much in use is the type of HT (Handy Transceiver) or Handheld Transceiver. HT is widely used in the field because it can carry because of the current source and the antenna is attached batterry together with the radio. While using HT are some things that need to diperhatikah order to function properly. Usually this is necessary if the communication opponent far enough or are difficult to reach. To keep in mind that the antenna is installed on the HT is the type of antenna Omnidirectional antenna that sends and receives from all directions. Therefore when using this antenna position should be in a position to vetikal ground / earth, especially if we do not know where the communication opponent's position. If we know the direction opposite the position of trying to communicate our bodies do not hinder that direction. To find a good position can be based on radio reception that we use, in principle, if the position can receive a fine then that position will also be good to radiate.

The power supply voltage source to a radio transceiver can be either dry Batterty (batterry stone), Batterry wet (battery) or Power Supply.

Batterry dry (batterry stone) has a voltage 1.5 volts DC, for batterrry or Batterrry NiCad rechargeable (cas) has a voltage 1.2 volts DC. Batterry wet (batteries) has a voltage of 12 volts DC.

Power Supply specifically for that function to change the voltage 220/110 volts AC into DC current-voltage normally from 0 to 15 volts DC, widely used in fixed stations / base station. One of the advantages of this Power Supply Batterry compared with wet (battery) is able to remove the voltage to 13.8 volts DC, while the wet Batterry (battery) 12 Volt DC only. And this voltage source will affect the amount of transmit power (watts) of the Aircraft Transceiver. The higher the voltage of the Power Source, then the greater the transmit power (watts) to be issued by the Aircraft Radio Transceiver, but not exceed the limits maksimium.

The antenna cable is a transmission line between the Aircraft Radio Transceiver with antenna, which has a double function: for transmission and reception of broadcast transmissions. Very influential once the beam / transmit when using low quality cables. Transmit power issued by the Radio Transceiver will be reduced after going through this cable. Because it u need to use good quality kebel not to affect or reduce the transmit power from the radio transceiver after this cable into the antenna.

Prior to this cable is used to do a test to see if the cable has lossis / loss of power if dipergunaka for Radio Tranceiver. This test can be done by using or SWR Power Meter and Dummy Load Meter and the radio transceiver itself.

There are several ways to do the test antenna, among others:
First of all prepare the Radio Tranceiver with power supply / power supply, connect the Power Meter / SWR Meter to Radio Tranceiver using jumper cables, in part at the SWR meter Conector leading Dummy Load paired antennae. Turn on the Radio Tranceiver they will be at the frequency where the usual approach is used. Transmitt do while watching Power Meter and note how many watts of power that came out during transmit tsb.Kemudian open jumper cables and replace it with a cable that will be used. Before doing transmitt to view transmit power, trim the cable so that no rolling / crossing. After trimming kebel do transmit it as previously said, clayey Power Meter. If the transmit power (watts) issued by the same means had the cable does not have lossis / losses and of course can be used immediately. However, if the transmit power (watts) issued less this means the cable power losses / lossis. To cope with this need to be cutting the cable, the cable was cut along + 2cm then paired trnsmitt back and do as before, looking at changes in transmit power (watts). Repeat several times until the transmit power of the approach as noted earlier.

Cable used to KRAP, both 11 meters and 2 meters is a cable that has a 50 ohm inpedance. Lots of antenna type which has a 50 ohm inpedance this, among other things that we often use the RG 58. This type of cable typically has a maximum power transmitter capable of flowing up to 160 watts. RG 8 and type larger, has a maximum power to 800 watts.

As transmission antenna cable also has a dual function is to receive and to signals emanating from a radio station.
Basically, the antenna comprises 2 (two) types namely:

a. Omnidirectional
That antenna is a radiance and acceptance of, and in all directions.
In general, the antenna is mounted vertically to the ground / earth.
Like : Ring-O/Ground Plane, Slim Jim (duck), Mobile Antenna, Antenna HT standard,

b. Directional
Antenna which has beam and receiving only one direction pad.
This antenna can be mounted vertically or horizontally, to 2 meters in
umnya fitted with a vertical position and at 11 meters with a horizontal position.

A directional antenna / directional consists of:
a. Projectors / Driven that serve as an antenna,
b. Reflectors which act as reflectors, and
c. Director who serves as director.
such as: Yagi antenna, antenna Five Zulu, etc..
ba c --------------------------- --------------------- -------

An antenna was always directed at the needs on the location of the communication opponent in order to radiate and receive very well. To make it easier for an operator to direct the antenna, you can use an electric motor mounted on the antenna pole and can be controlled from the operator table. Motor / Drive is called the "Rotator".

In an aircraft equipped with RIG microfon always attached to a spiral cable and connected to the aircraft with a conecto RIG, which is an integral part of a plane Rig. Another case with a radio HT, directly mounted on microfonnya box / HT's own body, because the HT is designed for use in the field. When HT is used in fixed station / base station or mobile stations would be inconvenient to radiate / transmitt, because they have to grasp the HT. To that required a microfon exstra (additional microfon) is known by the term "extra mic".

To measure the power loss (losses) that occur on transmission lines and antennas on the antenna itself. In SWR meter there is usually also a function power meter to measure the transmit power of a transmitter.

When using several antennas to one radio transceiver or a fruit
antennas with a few fruit Radio, to be used interchangeably without dismantling the plug connector cable needed to transfer SWITC Coax, better known by the term "Switc antenna".

Dummy Load
A transmitter / radio transceiver is not burdened with an antenna radiating without due will
could damage the amplifier end (final). Therefore, if the will radiate to conduct tests without an antenna, then the "Dummy Load" can be used as a replacement antenna artificial load.

Ground worked best to voltage security against electric shock, and to reduce RFI interference (splatter) and transmit power and strengthen the power of acceptance.

During Guglielmo Marconi was regarded as the inventor of radio. When in fact many people play a role in its development. The early 1800s independently Joseph Henry, professor of Pinceton University, and the English physicist Michael Faraday developed the theory of induction. Their experiment proves electromagnetic current in a wire can cause the current in another wire rod, although the two are not related. In 1864 another English physicist James Maxwell Clerik, theorized that an electric current creates a magnetic field and that electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light. Maxwell's theory was later verified by experiments conducted German physicist Heinrich Hertz, in 1880.

Only later Guglielmo Marconi in 1895, managed to send a radio communication signals with electromagnetic waves as far as ± 1.5 km. In 1901, the signal from the Marconi radio devices capable of crossing the Atlantic Ocean from England to Newfoundland, Canada.

But the Canadian-born physicist Reginald A. Fessenden was the first to transmit the human voice via radio when in 1906, he was talking over the radio from Brant Rock, Massachusetts, USA, to the ships in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast. Since then, the radio continues to grow more perfect, is supported by findings in stages.

In the early twentieth century, scientists have developed a vacuum tube that can track and strengthen the U.S. signal radio.Penemu Lee De Forest audion patent trioda or her year 1907, which later became an important element in the radio signal reception. The ability of this revenue improved again with the findings Edwin H. Armstrong, who created the circuit superheterodyne 1918. Circuit which is still used today has a high capability of Armstrong's selection is also a FM broadcasting system developed in 1933.

Radio works by changing the voice or other signals into electromagnetic waves or radio waves. These waves move through air and space, through solid objects. Radio waves move with the size of the speed of light, 299.792 km / sec. When the signal received by the receiver, he immediately changed the original form of sound.

Important part in radio was the antenna, tuner, amplifier, and loudspeakers. Antennas to capture radio waves, tuner function for the wave with the figures given frequency. While amplifier strengthens the signal of the selected programs tuner. On the radio, a transistor amplifier and IC (Integrated Circuit). While the radio from the year before that use vacuum tabeung. Last estuary is a speaker that will change the electrical signals into the original sound.
Although the pilot was first broadcast done in 1910, the actual radio broadcasts in many countries began only in 1920. When TV ruled the world, many people think, live radio age counting days. It turned out that the technology allows the production of portable radios - even just for the match - a practical portable. Another attraction, not just an interactive quiz program that directly involves the audience, as well as the quality the better modulation with the FM broadcast to broadcast the music so popular.

Tidak ada komentar:

Posting Komentar